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Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

TOPIC 3 : COLDS • Most common type of infection that we deal with in NorthAmerica • Aviral disease • When you get a cold it is hard to figure out what is causing it • In most cases when you are suffering from a cold you are getting it from the rhinovirus • Symptoms for a flu is the same as a cold o Fever doesn’t determine if it is flu or cold • Influenza can be fatal o Occurs more often in old people • What happens? o Virus destroys tissue o The immune system overeacts to the prescence of the virus and causes the symptoms  Coughing  Sneezing  Fever  All used to try to get rid of the virus • No cure for the common cold o Nothing know that will prevent colds or curing it o Many remedies do nothing  But they will make your symptoms less, alleviating the symptoms o Typical cold lasts about a week o Don’t waste your time trying to treat your cold • Cold research boomed after WW2 o Salisbury research place offered up free vacation to people so they can research on people • Sneezes do not conduct cold virus very well o Sneeze itself doesn’t contain a lot of virus o Sneezing comes from their mouth rather than the nose • Being cold has nothing to do with causing colds • Wet hair does not cause colds either • Direct exposure to virus does not always cause colds • Cold virus is spread through nasal secretions o Nasal secretions spread very easily o People with colds have secretions that drip down their nose o They touch their face and spread all over the place very easily • Cold virueses are transferred primarily through touching o Commonly touched objects o Colds become more common in crowds  Its during cold seasons (ie: winter, fall) that you are in close contact environments (ie: schools, busses, etc…) • They figured this out by monitoring the spread of a cold through an island • Things to prevent colds o Washing hands reduces chance of getting colds o Hand sanitizers may reduce chance of getting colds  Don’t overuse this stuff, can cause skin damage o Masks will not protect you against cols but it would contain your colds o If you are a face toucher, try to reduce it o Incidence of colds decrease with age  There may be a small spike from age 20-30 (because you have kids that are constantly sick)  Young children are more sick than adults because they are more social and in close contact with others and they easily spread disease  As you age you also build up your immunity • You only get sick from a particular strain of virus once, your immune system will not let you get sick from that virus again • Cold medicines o Can be used to alleviate symptoms, but cant cure it o Read the back not the front of the box o Most agents contain no active ingredients at all o Cold remedy ingredients  Pain reliever or fever reducer (ie: acetaminophen, ibuprofen, etc…) • Menthol a weak topical analgesic (reduces pain) o Makes your mouth feel cool and tricks your brain by telling it is soothing the pain o Menthol cough drops for sore throat might help a little bit more, benefit will only last as long as the cough drop is in your mouth • Cepacol contains a topical anesthetic o Anesthetics kills pain  Decongestant – no such thing as a sinus cold • Dries a runny nose • Pseudoephedrine – works o Extremely affective o Can be used to make methamphetamine  Drug dealers used to buy it by the ton directly from factories  Now they cant do it anymore so now drug dealers are doing something called “smerfing” where they just go into drug stores and buy all of their pseudoephedrine • Because of this you can no longer buy pseudoephedrine over the counter without asking the pharmacist for it o Pseudoephedrine is still widely available in different products o Generic versions are available for this as well o Normally labeled as “pseudoephedrine hydrochloride”  The second chemical, in this case “hydrochloride” is a stabilizer to keep it from going bad easily due to exposure to oxygen • Phenylephrine – doesn’t work o Cannot be converted to crystal meth o Unfortunately this drug does not work o It is given in such a low amount that in most people it wont do anything • Both work in the same way o Based on the fact that the snot in your nose is mostly water o Proteins stick very well to water and turn water into a jelly • The water in mucus is supplied by the blood, blood vessels undergo vasodilation and gaps between cells increase and blood
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