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Simplified Review of Topic 2 (Pain) for Drugs 101

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Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

BPS 1101TOPIC 2 REVIEWPAINprescription drugs 300 million per year more expensive OTC over the counter drugs25 billion per year 10 of previouscough and cold make most 41 billion next is pain relief 27 billionYou should NOT use drugs if1 special condition diabetes pregnancy etc2 drug combination is bad drugs can crossreact3 Foods crossreact though rare4 Natural remedy crossreacts with medicationWorlds most popular drugs are 1 alcohol 2 caffeine 3 aspirin 4 nicotineAspirinASAgeneric nameacetasalicylic acid ASAbrand nameaspirinHistory of aspirinoriginates from salicylates from the plants of the genus Salix beech wintergreen willow poplarancient uses Sumerians used willow leaves for pain 2200 BC Egyptians used willow for inflammation Hippocrates used willow bark for childbirththwillow knowledge lost in dark ages until rediscovered by Reverend Edward Stone in 18 century as aprescribed treatment for aguea form of fevergiven as dried bark ground to a powder given for fever Marketing and Synthesisth Henri Leroux isolated salicin from willow bark in 19 century however a lot of bark is needed15 kg makes 30 g of salicinth Rafaella Pira also in 19 century prepared salicylic acid SA from salicin which can be used as analgesicantipain antipyretic antifever antiinflammatoryhowever yield is 14 g from the 30 g of salicin isolated William Perkin turned coal tar into SA easily synthetic synthesis1 kg300 g which is10X moreproduct Salicylic acid was being created by dye companies who were using coal tar to make dye one of these companies Bayer started to sell SA SA however had problems great for analgesic antipyretic and antiinflammatory bad for bitter taste stomach irritation Felix Hoffmans father had arthritis therefore took SA for pain but suffered stomach problemshe decided to optimize the drug by changing SA into acetasalicylic acid ASAused a biological assay to test this as well tried on fish gillsfirst attempt at biological assayBayers Aspirin marketed with heroinAspirin was initially sold as powder then became tablets was used for multiple purposes even toothpasteAspirins Effect and Mechanism Benefits1 Antipain2 antifever3 antiinflammation4 reduces heart attack riskSide effects1 Tinnitusringing in the ear2 Stomach irritation
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