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Simplified Review of Drugs 101's Topic 5 (Cancer) - Note that a lot of the biochemistry is skimmed (unnecessary if you're in Science)

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Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

BPS 1101TOPIC 5CANCER Hyperproliferative lesion is benign benign tumours grow to a certain size and dont bother other processes Ex warts Exception benign tumours can be fatal in developing countries grow so large it becomes an issueHyperproliferative lesion that is malignant are irregularly shaped the tumour feels glued to the underneath tissue because it grows into that tissuecancer accounts for nearly one quarter of deaths in the US exceeded only by heart disease cancer is a disease of the aged over 75 of all cases are after 55 note that 100 years ago people wouldnt live long enough to get cancer for Canadabefore 35 years cancer almost doesnt exist happens in children but its extremely rare more common in men than women because women are smarter lifestyleBy looking at death rates by cause between 1950 and 2001 most diseases have decreasedbut cancer has stayed roughly the samestabilization of death rates may likely be due to the classification and coding of causes of death HeLa cells from Henrietta Lacks 1951 had cervical cancer she died from cancer but her doctor removed a piece of her tumour and realized they still grew controversy over this because the doctor not only removed cells without her permission but he made lotsof money while she was a relatively poor womanOther characteristics of cancer malignant cells are often mobile cancer requires 20 years to develop requires 810 mutations in the same cell every cancer is different Cancer is uncontrolled growth normal cells become cancerousyour own cells growing out of control make your own parasite Normal cell is closely regulated divides on command divides up to 50 times but for cancer cells they divide morenote that cell division is regulated by stimulation and repression and that in cancer this is broken p53 is an important braking protein that regulates apoptosis apoptosis is required for embryo development formation of limbs wound healing have toremove bad cells to replace with new ones protects the body from infection and cancer get rid of bad cellscancers often have a problem with this protein chromosomes tips are also like shoe lacesevery cell division makes these smaller and tips are there to make sure theyre not frayedchromosomes became frayed with agefor cancer cells are immortal regenerate the tips tumours form special blood vessels to get nutrition Cancer and susceptibilitygenetic susceptibilityoncogenes instructions are easier to change some have a phenotype that can cause problems light skineasily damaged skinskin cancerMost cancer death is caused by controllable factors Most common reasonstobaccodiet and obesityviruses everything else in order of prevalencealcohol lack of exerciseUV radiationenvironmental exposure 24geneticsmedical procedures Xrays and chemotherapy
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