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Lecture 7

BPS 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Public Health Genomics, Acetaldehyde, Hela


Department
Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course Code
BPS 1101
Professor
William Ogilvie
Lecture
7

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Cancer is an uncontrolled growth (hyper-proliferative lesion), where normal
cells become cancerous.
it can be:
benign
can be lethal if untreated, but not dangerous usually in
Canada
malign
lethal
The body creates a parasite (the cancer cells) and take all the
body’s ressource
Cells divide on command. They must be touching similar cells,
or else the cells die.
Cancer is uncontrolled and they are mostly mobile
(metastisis)
Cancer cells are immortal
Henrietta lacks had uterine cance. His
doctor took cells from her uterus before she
died in 1951. THEY ARE STILL ALIVE
TODAY; HeLa cells are being multiplied in
petri dishes and used for research. There
are a lot today.
It takes 20 years to develop on average (needs 8-10 mutations in the SAME
cell)
22.9% of deaths in the US
Over 75% of cases occur after 55 years
cancer in children is very rare
Cancer treatments are unpleasant
the threatments can be the cause of death
in 50 years, it’s one of the only disease where the treatment has
not simnifically decreased the mortality rate
1975-2000: only +10% survival rate; mostly due to earlier diagnostic
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Men are more likely to get cancer
reason: lung cancer is the most popular cancer and men smoke a lot
more than women
There will never be a cure, because each tumor is unique.
In the body, the chemical reactions cascade; they are complex
cell division is regulated in 2 ways
stimulation (acceleration)
repression (brake)
you have to interfere with both to “cure" cancer.
stimulation is always active
repression doesn’t work
p53 protein regulates repression, but they place it
is in a cell is vulnerable
cancer mutation involve loss of function (something is broken)
impossible to repair with today’s technology
apoptosis is programmed cell death
it is what heals wounds.
it also protects us from virus and cancer
every day, you have a tumor, but it is destroyed because
the cell “commits suicide"
Cells divide 50 times before an important part
of chromosomes disappear (hence death of cell)
cancer cells do not lose chromosomes bit; they are immortal
How cancer works:
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