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BPS1101 (424)
Lecture

TOPIC 7 REVIEW - ANTIBIOTICS

5 Pages
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Department
Biopharmaceutical sciences
Course Code
BPS1101
Professor
William Ogilvie

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Description
TOPIC 7 REVIEWANTIBIOTICS Antibiotics are the second best health invention in human historylife expectancy has dramatically increased due to such things as antibiotics and vaccinations now main cause ofdeath is wear n tearit used to be infectionsHistory of InfectionsPlagues were common throughout historyBubonic Plague mortality rate maybe 25 and in some areas the mortality was 50cause of death was unknownpeople thought it was due to God therefore would search for reasons why God was mad burn hereticsetccures and treatments failed if you were lucky the treatments were harmless people who had knowledge of the disease fled from the area you were left with plague doctors they would cover themselves from head to toe and wear beak maskwith spices with strong scents thought it was due to unhealthy airsTheyd have stick to poke the patient Maternal mortality ratepost natal infections were common therefore maternal mortality rate was 30 Surgery survival rate was less than 30if you had any kind of surgery you would likely die from infection WWI and WWII more deaths due to infection than combatYou died from malaria influenza or cholera but 1 cause of death was SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASEHistorical Road to ImprovementsJohn Snow disproved miasma theory 1854miasma theorydisease caused by bad smellshe carried out scientific investigation during cholera outbreak in London SohoSnow made a map of cholera infections and through this identified the source the most infections were closest to an area of a particular water pump which was close to a cesspit whichharvested the cholera bacteria lived in foecesthey removed the handle from the pump so no one could get the water but the City Fathers thought that foeces inthe water was a distasteful conclusion so they ordered the handle to be put back on water pump is now a historical landmark where each year they have a ceremony to remove the handleand put it back on Agostino Bassi showed microbes cause diseaseshowed silkworks could get disease through fungusAtharvaVeda identifies living animals causing diseasetherefore not a new ideathese Hindu texts recorded almost 4000 years ago proposed this principal Louis Pasteur develops pasteurization 1864used knowledge that microbes caused disease as well as spoilage to improve milkif you heat milk at a low temperature you maintain milks flavour and kill the baceteriapeople debated this thought that heating milk destroyed nutrients wrong Lister develops antisepsissprayed material toxic to microbes to protect patients during surgery HC Gram stains bacteria in 1884using different dyes you could colour different kinds of bacteria
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