BPS1101 Lecture 1: MASTER COPY ALL LECTURES BPS1101

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MASTER COPY DRUGS 101 WINTER 2015
Lecture 1 – BPS1101
Monday, January 12, 2015 & Wednesday January 14, 2015
wogilvie@uottawa.ca
Feb 4 / March 11 midterm dates
One reading per evaluation
Science
oCollect facts
oDraw conclusions based on them
oTest your conclusions in several ways
Magic, superstition
oDraw the conclusions you want
oFind some facts to fit those conclusions
History
Canada’s average age 81.2 (2009)
World average is 66.6
Approximately 30-35 years for the majority of recorded history
The improvements up to 80 years have happened over the past 150 years or so
Improvements begin after the year 1850 (the year that science was applied to
medical discovery)
1900
o44 years
omain causes of death; pneumonia, tuberculosis, influenza (up until the
1950s)
2004
o82 years
oheart disease, cancer, stroke (the big three make up over 50% of deaths)
lower respiratory infection, traffic accidents, diabetes
Lice and fleas constantly infecting humans
If you were born even 50 years ago you can expect to carry worms around in your
body, ‘deworming is necessary
Never having a day in your life that was infection free, quality of life severely
affected
Improving health is dependent on improved sanitation, clean drinking water,
refrigeration, vaccination and antibiotics
In the country outhouses were utilized or in the city where that was not available
you would store waste in a chamber pot and dump your waste into a moat of
sewage
Being this close to human waste puts human health at risk
High exposure with the dead and dying
oIn the past family members would have to bury their family when they
passed away
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Nature does not automatically make pure water, things live in this water
oExample of a species – guinea worm
oLives in the body and muscles and then makes it way out by bursting
through the skin about one year later
Biggest treatment is the chlorination of water
Chlorine acts as a preservative to keep the water safe during transport through
pipes
Foods previously preserved in an ice house
Immunization
Very successful for viral diseases
Smallpox – eliminated in 1977
oOnly exists in labs and biological weapons
Polio eradicated from North America 1991
oCurrently less than 1000 cases world-wide
oParalyzed people who contracted it
o10 or 11 countries
omajor eradication barrier is politics
Penicillin reduced maternal mortality
North American drug market
oPrescription drugs $300 billion
oOver the counter drugs $25 billion
United States makes up 49.1% of the drug markets
Types of Medical Treatment
oSurgical
Removal of affected body part (traditional)
Modification of body part (modern) made possible through
anistesia
oMedical
Use of chemical compounds to treat disease
Plants are a good source of drugs because they themselves engage in chemical
warfare to protect themselves from predators
Drugs – produce desired biological effect whereas the poisons produce undesired
effects
The main differences between the two are the dose administered
Greek pharmakon means both drug and poison
Sola dosis facit veneum – only the dose makes the poison
Normally it is assumed that a low dose will produce benefit & high dose will
produce harmful effects
Sometimes this can work in the opposite way (not having enough insulin,
produces a disease, must inject more to obtain the effects)
How were drugs discovered?
Observation and experimentation (rare) – but current
oPeople observed the effect of the drug
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oStrong poisons given in low dose
Philosophy
oCure arrived at by reasoning
oBased on belief
oHealing often connected
Observation only capable with strong poisons that are easily identifiable and weak
poisons only with a large quantity available for effect
Hippocrates – 460-370BC is the father of medicine
oPromoted experimental methods
oRejected superstition and religion from healing
1. Ox liver for night blindness
2. Poppy juice for crying babies
3. Animal fat for baldness
Poppy juice
oOpium - narcotic painkiller, sedative
oToxic in high doses
Cocaine as a stimulant
oExtracted from coca leaves
oTopical painkiller (utilized in medical practices, for example cosmetic
surgeries)
oStimulant
Quinine as malaria treatment
oSevere disease
o#2 infectious killer in the world
oBark of the tree it comes from was more valuable than gold at one point
oTonic water contains quinine
Problems with observations
oHuman brains searches for patterns even when they are not present
Process things as images
Apophenia (seeing them in random/ meaningless data)
Pareidolia (perceiving sounds/ images as something else)
oAnecdotal evidence not reliable
Drug and effect may be coincidence
Poison and harm may not be connected either (spider bite and rash)
Perceptions subject to placebo effects
People lie (over exaggerating symptoms, trying to impress other
people)
Anecdotal evidence is misleading
oOnce ‘evidence is available, hard to contradict
Many harmful remedies retained because of this
Parents cold remedies
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