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Cancer
- Cancer is uncontrolled growth (part of you not growing properly)
- Hyper-proliferative lesion benign (grow to certain point and then stop)
- Hyper-proliferative lesion malignant (skin mends together)
- Top 2 ways to die:
1) heart disease 27%
2) cancer 22.9%
- Cancer is more common in men than women (women lead healthier lifestyle)
- Cancer rarely ever happen until age 35
- To survive cancer you need to be young and detected early
- Normal cells become cancerous
Cancer cells grow a lot, suck up nutrients
Becomes a parasite in your body and when you can’t support you cells and cancer cells with
nutrients you die
- Normal cells about 50 times (after that it dies)
- Normal cells also only divide on command
- Cancer cells divide continuously
- More than 50 cell divisions (immortal)
- Immortal cells are called “HeLa” cells from Henrietta Lacks when her tumour was removed the
cells didn’t die
- Malignant cells are mobile
- Cancer cells require 20 years to develop
Requires 8-10 mutations to occur for cancer to occur in the same cell
- Cell division is regulated in 2 ways
1) Stimulation (accelerator)
2) Repression (brakes)
- With cancer there is no repression so cells don’t stop growing
- Apoptosis = program cell death (self-destruct cell) happens in healing wound, tries to protect
body from viruses and cancer (by killing cell you kill virus)
- In tumors, they lose ability to self-destruct and body can’t protect itself from harmful cells in the
body
Codons
- 3 letters from the gene to create an amino acid
- Sequence of amino acid determines protein structure
- Mutation is the wrong letter (typo) in amino acid sequence
- Oncogenes are more genetically susceptible to mutations
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