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Biopharmaceutical sciences
William Ogilvie

Cancer - Cancer is uncontrolled growth (part of you not growing properly) - Hyper-proliferative lesion – benign (grow to certain point and then stop) - Hyper-proliferative lesion – malignant (skin mends together) - Top 2 ways to die: 1) heart disease 27% 2) cancer 22.9% - Cancer is more common in men than women (women lead healthier lifestyle) - Cancer rarely ever happen until age 35 - To survive cancer you need to be young and detected early - Normal cells become cancerous Cancer cells grow a lot, suck up nutrients Becomes a parasite in your body and when you can’t support you cells and cancer cells with nutrients you die - Normal cells about 50 times (after that it dies) - Normal cells also only divide on command - Cancer cells divide continuously - More than 50 cell divisions (immortal) - Immortal cells are called “HeLa” cells from Henrietta Lacks when her tumour was removed the cells didn’t die - Malignant cells are mobile - Cancer cells require 20 years to develop Requires 8-10 mutations to occur for cancer to occur in the same cell - Cell division is regulated in 2 ways 1) Stimulation (accelerator) 2) Repression (brakes) - With cancer there is no repression so cells don’t stop growing - Apoptosis = program cell death (self-destruct cell) happens in healing wound, tries to protect body from viruses and cancer (by killing cell you kill virus) - In tumors, they lose ability to self-destruct and body can’t protect itself from harmful cells in the body Codons - 3 letters from the gene to create an amino acid - Sequence of amino acid determines protein structure - Mutation is the wrong letter (typo) in amino acid sequence - Oncogenes are more genetically susceptible to mutations - Red-haired people are more susceptible to skin cancer because of fair skin - Most cancer caused by controllable factors (ex. tobacco, diet, obesity, alcohol, lack of exercise) Tobacco - Contains 400 toxic chemicals (at low doses) has 4800 chemicals - Nicotine is addictive - Carcinogens in tobacco – polonium 210 (comes from ocean to fertilizer to plant) - Alpha radiation is safe outside body but when smoking it gets into the body (where its dangerous) - People used to use radioactive sparkplugs - Polonium 210 is a poison (need nuclear reactor to get) When burning it, it turns into vapour but when it’s in the body it cools down and hardens This concentrates the radiation of Polonium 210 Diet and Obesity - We cook food for safety and taste (if bacteria is eating raw meat and we eat it, we get bacteria) - C
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