BPS 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Fluoxetine, Side Effect, Chlorpromazine
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Wednesday, March 16, 2016
We basically operate like a machine.
It could be a valve that isn't closing properly or that heart is a little too big/small.
A person who’s diabetic might not be producing enough insulin.
Just like you liver and your kidneys, your brain can break down or not be set up the way it should
be. Things can go wrong just like they do in the liver and pancreas
If theres an alteration to the function of the brain, this can be manifested in a change in your
behaviour. If you have something wrong with your liver or pancreas, no one knows about it
unless you tell them. If the brain isn’t working the way it should, people will know because it
alters your behaviour.
We all misbehave. But if your brain isn't working the way it should… you can have a behaviour
that isn't under your control anymore
People don't realize its an organ not working in the way that it should.
In terms of this physicality, not being under your control, has a lot of basis. Theres a genetic
basis for certain kinds of personalities, introverts and extrovert personalities can be inherited.
Religiousness, passiveness and aggressiveness
Theres a genetic component to mental illness: they've identiﬁed certain kinds of genes that
relate to certain kinds of mental illnesses.
Today, we look at mental illness the same way with someone who has a heart issue.
Trepanation was a way it was approached (cutting a whole in the skull)
Meant to exercise the demon or make them behave normally. Parts of India and the Middle East
have a much more open mind to things, not treating it as a demonic disease. This was more
Only about 100 years ago did people look at this in a different viewpoint. Maybe its treatable…
Freud comes up with the idea of psychotherapy.
Lobotomy was important in the 30’s and 40’s, it was a surgical modiﬁcation to the brain
This was approached at the time.
Wednesday, March 16, 2016
Developed in the 30’s and 40’s, someone was subjected to different voltages. This would be
successful in some ways, their behaviours would be altered. But it was unpleasant. Still used
today, but if its done, they anaesthetize you. It is effective in certain types of illnesses.
People would now be treated in mental hospitals instead of being locked up and disregarded.
But these weren't the nicest places to go to.
The ﬁrst effective drugs were developed. You didnt have to rely o the other treatments, you could
not be treated with a drug and have your beaver altered. It really changed the practice of how
these people were treated
Discovered by accident.
They hear voices, different sounds, confused thinking and imagine things happening when they
really arent. They also have the idea that their thinking or thoughts impact other people in the
world. This can alter your behaviour to the extent at where you're not able to function. Symptoms
appear at ages 18-22 and doesnt typically reverse. They usually have t adapt to it and handle it
This went about in surgery. They noticed people coming in for surgery were anxious, doctors
looked for a way to calm them down. Certain antihistamines had a relaxing effects. One doctor
experimented and found that surgical patients wouldn't be anxious if taken one day before.
Based on this, more research was done to develop better drugs. Can we make a better drug?
This turned out to be a lucky situation, these drugs alleviated their other symptoms of printing
hallucinations and symptoms associated with schizophrenia
Now these people could actually modify they behaviour enough and live a normal life.
They would produce an uncontrolled facial conditions. People would tolerate it because the
alternative was worse
Thorazine lowered the amount of dopamine. So schizophrenia was somehow associated with
the amount of dopamine you had. It was theorized that increased levels of dopamine is part of
the cause of schizophrenia
The effectiveness of the drug didnt change very much. Its not to say modern drugs aren't
improved but the different is the reduction in side effects.
First treatment for depression was an accident. This is something in ichi the person has no
control over their depression. Another stigma “just snap out of it”. Usually we rebound out of it
and move on. But a person who has real clinical depression are stuck in that depressed state
and cant rebound.
Anhedonia; unable to snap out of it. You cant will your brain to somehow feel pleasure. Its not a
normal kind of down feeling
This was initially tested for schizophrenia and found it did nothing but elevate their mood. So it
was tested on sad people. It allowed them to function normally
Meant to raise the levels of serotonin. The nerve cells recycle these nerotramitters
The drug were blocking the devices which take the neurotransmitters back into the transmitting
cell. It allows it to persist in the gap cells which helps counteract the depression
All we know is that its associated with the levels of serotonin