History of Jews in Canada
Jews migrating often-No central place. (complexities)
Sefarad-Spain 1492—France and Holland
~taken over by Muslim regime—god of Abraham
~~move to central Europe. France
Both have indifference…Minorities (non-violent)
~Intelligent, literate…welcomed into other countries
*2 Jewish communities in Europe
~separate worlds. Little to no contact
Develop differences Canada-Ashkenaz jews after fall of French regime…Sefarad before
Sefarad----ashkenaz (CANADAS Jewish population) (time)
Conditions in London--->first movement
1950-60 safarad synagogue- Montréal- First in Canada (British Influence) NOT France Administrator of France Cardinal Richelieu ~1627-New France
Only catholic. Expanding to other territories. (ideas, religion)
No way of checking. Jews into New France colony and staying. Quietly practicing Judaism and
Catholicism to hide. No temple.
1722 before Christ, kingdom of Israel destroyed. Jews dispersed. 10 tribes wondering the world.
Jews in North America, 1 people???? Down graded life. MARC LESCARBOT
~ Ashkenaz in East 1200/Sefarad in west 1600…some in Paris…spread out.
~~no contact. Small groups in the middle.
Protestants and Catholics war (physical) hostility to non catholics~JEWS. 1600
~Edict of Nantes 1598
Finished in 1685-Jewish transferred to new France
Bordeaux-influence, can live there with rights…New France. Agreement with Safard. A couple of
people to New France. Port territory.
1738-Bramdeau-quebec city. Claim to be a man but is a women. Came to convert (movement
from Bordeaux to Canada) *STORY* disguise, concealment to escape detection to get to new
France…others that followed to new France??
*Gelinas-Saintes (Jewish Ancestors) geniality
*Reformed Judaism due to revolution…adapt from orthodox (both groups) 19 Century
Migration around Europe to Canada New France
Small number of Jews in Canada.
Change in regime 1763, treaty of Paris.
No open Jewish identity. Synagogues
T.A. James Morgan~ [email protected]
Chicago reference style-History
Tabula Rasa-“blank slate” start from scratch
1763 that’s what happened. End of french regime, end of gov. new type of gov.
New community arrived, new principals. From Europe. New Beginning.
New immigrants from new background starting from scratch. Do not know what happened
before or ignored.
French=new community. British needs to adapt to the new beginning.
Trigger Factor-conditions ripe for change. Suddenly change…new conditions, French
New migration to Canada…Factor? Circumstances/principals
-Jews caught in crossfire in France (religion). Edict of Nantes. Leave or endure hard times.
Saffardi Jews “underground” in New France.
British Jews- easy living, can be openly Jewish, British Canada welcomed.
Very different from French Jews. Views.
First synagogue 1768 Montréal. British Jews
1708 in London England~first one.
Late 1600 Cromwell reintroduced Jews in Great Britain, Bevis Marks. 1768 introduced to
Montreal. First Jew in Montreal, ‘Aaron Hart’-Hart family (merchants), 1760, British Jews, supplying British Army (food stamps, blankets, supplys), Jews couldn’t be soldiers, providers of
the army. Sons helpful with intro of synagogue in MTL. Needed 10 men for minion in hallways.
“1492 kicked out of Europe”
Bevis Marks-**Safardi ritual**1492 http://www.bevismarks.org.uk/
Jews who were british followed Safardi ritual. Spanish/portugese ritual because it was first
synagogue in Europe. Safardi ritual=social mobility and prestige, Ashkenazi= not as socially
mobile or prestige’s. More value/elitest. Canadian jewish related to orthodox All! Not reform…
Safardi not Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi-late comers and not as valued
_Shearith Israel-Shearith means the ‘remains’. Continuity and survival.
1777-and moved to 4 locations. Spanish Portugese.
Leading figure-Abraham de Sola- Spanish safardi name, 1847 from London, 24 years old, best
rabbi of the synagogue. English tongue, Safardi views. Belonged to Anglo-protestant system of
MTL. Influence in the USA, 1873 American congress. Creates Canadian Jewish
(orthodox/british) American (reform…?)
Strict views in Canada…NOT reform.
_Shaar ha shomayi-“Gates of Heaven”
1 time Ashkenazi ritual in Canada, *after WW2* lower then Shafardi. 1 synagogue on Mcgill
College Ave. Different notion of Judiasm. Built synagogue in Westmount (English, westside).
CLASH between Ashkenazi and Shafardi.
_1882-Temple (Reform) Emanu-El-Beth Sholom- “Faith in god, House of Peace” Reform 3 rd
synagogue in MTL. Liberalism. Didn’t displace orthodox current in MTL which was already in
place. German Jew. Temple more neutral rather than synagogue.
*Cemetery, schooling to come with synagogue/temple. Stable Rabbi=teacher. Kids Bar mitzvah,
Petitions to British king 1833—Ashkenazi Jews first synagogue, Safardi ritual, no more Spanish
Emancipation of Jews- rejecting limits on civil or political or economic of people. End of
discrimination. Jews in the olden days. Tolerated, no citizenship. Fewer rights and privileges.
French revolution- equal rights to people. Treated equal by the state. 1791- Jews treated
differently. 1 time in Europe. Treated equal.
1982-charter, reaffirms equality in Canada 1832-act of parliament in lower Canada. Jews treated equal. Same rights.-beginning of human
rights legislature of Canada. Equal before the law. Hart family gets Rights. MAJOR TURNING
POINT. Not end of prejudice or discrimination. Illegal.
Papineau felt that if jews had the same rights, so would Catholics. Where they are emerging as
well. King was not catholic so wanted to get support.
After 1763 jews can own land in lower Canada. (Hart and who he came with). Men can vote,
trade, and have a place of worship (synagogue) openly. Cannot run for office or sit in
parliament. Act of 1842 made that possible. 250 jews in Canada at that time. Too small of a
community. Legal decision.
Ezekiel, son of Aaron Hart, ran for parliament of lower Canada. As Anglophone, elected by
francophone population. Had to swear on Christian bible. Didn’t swear and was kicked out.
Couldn’t “sit”. Tried the same thing in 1809. Elected but didn’t “sit”. Wasn’t acceptable.
How the HART family established itself. Wanted to become Canadian. Orthodox Jews in Safardi
Canadian Jews still following orthodox ritual- Safardi
-Switches happened…not just for religion
-No established authority (pope, bishop)
1832-full complete civil rights
-no sense of a Jewish outward identity
-practiced in private (synagogue, home)
-Wealthy, well-established merchants
Aaron Hart (Founder of Canadian Jews by Canadian Jews) First Family (MODEL to
-lives among the goyim (non-jews) adapt well to francophoness
-Marries daughters and sons to Jewish spouses
-Jewish home/kosher home -own cemetery
-celebrate paisa and Shabbat Friday (guidelines)
-Sends kids to USA to learn jewish/find spouses
-Moderation-cope with environment. (not at odds with whats around them) no
-provayer of British Armyfound place in Canadian society
-born 1724 supposedly (unknown where)
-bought land for services/good (no discrimination) TROIS RIVERE
-land owned by old French regime
-1762 runs post office (good with authorities)
**practicing jew, knowledgeable Orthodox (Came to Canada with it)
-not isolated, knows
-letters to his children/family
-goes back to England to find spouse (jewish), returns to Canada (trois rivere)
-sons wealthy, inherit land. Business-beer, navigation, and far away trade
-dependents not Jewish (Wife wasn’t Jewish)
-Merchant (most jews) best solution
-can afford measure of independence. Not working for someone else.
-loyal to Great Britain (Canadian Jews). Sense of belonging to empire. (not like American Jews)
1767 USA invade MTL
Great Britain 1917 Balfour Declaration
-Palestine homeland Mass Migration
-Trigger for change
-Hart model not applicable anymore…
-able to tell apart
Young Men’s Hebrew Benevolent Society 1863
-desire to do good
-for new immigrants
-beginning of new migration
-Canadian Jews have organization (charitable)
-support system for new Jews in Canada
-Jews will lend a hand to poor people (preset-one has to turn to those who are poor/trouble and
organize charity as a Jewish responsibility)
-function in society to produce results
Maurice Moritz (1863)
de Hirsch (1890)
-very wealthy along with his people around him
-class differences between Jews LECTURE 4
Primary sources (Literate people, wrote, produced sources then other communities, oral
interviews (witnesses), archives)
The Canadian Jewish Heritage Network Website
Jewish Mass migration to Canada
1867 to 1987
-1907 most immigration 1400 people (post WW1)
-Canada was ready for mass migration after Wilfred Laurier 1896
-*Halifax Railway to Vancouver*
-Liberal Government elected (ethnic diversity)
-Sifton plan (part of Laurier’s platform 1900 to 1902 functioning)- open gates
policy, immigrants pour into country. Alberta and Sask growing-needs to be filled,
agriculturers/farmers. Canadian government ready to pay and give cheap rail way/ land/healthy
land. (GREAT JEWISH MASS MIGRATION)
-transforms Jewish community in Canada
-1900 to WW2
-1871-1971 growth (pause during the Wars and Great Depression,
-Looking for a better life (Other life not very desirable)
-moved out after NAZI
-ready to migrate
-adapting to circumstances
-collect money then bring rest of family (chain-migration) Early 20 C.-tough on family -mental, social, emotional adaptation to Canada
-Russian Revolution(1881-Alexander III/1905-Nicolas II)
-repression that followed triggered mass migration to Canada (Jewish)
Migrate to Montrael
-Place with prosperity
-port city on Atlantic (easy access)
-Largest Jewish city
-Some organization (Jewish)-Hirsh Institute
-supplemented with readings
-how introduced to society/difficulties
-what people had to overcome
-whether orthodox or reform or …
-comparing politicians Great Migration
-high numbers in such a short time
-WW1 slowed down migration
-1950’s Canadian born Jews
-1901-19201920’s drop in migration
-1930’s not even 1000 a year…
-1940, Austrian/German prisoners of war (refugees)-not freed (camps)
-refugees last chance before war (crossing the Atlantic)
-1943 freedCanada and USA
-1940’s little number of migration to Canada (War, due to Nazi’s)
-post war-increase in migration (holocaust survivors) 1948, 49, 50
-1960’s saffardian Jews migration to Canada
-how were survivors welcomed into Canada due to their circumstances
1 period-but it place 1901-1910
2 period- 1920 great migration
Jewish population in Canada
-visible, Jewish institutions, stores, newspapers, cultural institutions, community
-“Market for Jews”
-largest immigrant community after French and English (3 place)
-Yiddish #3 language before 1950
-Same trend if put to Africans in Canada
Yiddish-Indo-European (vernacular) -recent
-99% 1931 east European Jews spoke in Canada (Montréal)
Hebrew-prayer language (Judaism)
Part of large immigration from Russia
-1900-1914 a million left Russia (Jews) out of 6 million
-100,000 to Canada
-Argentina, USA, Mexico, Paris, South Africa….
-Yiddish widely spread language due to great migration
Revolt of 1905
-12 years before Soviet revolution of 1917
-destruction of Russian empire (czars)
-Jews punished for aspiring to a more democratic society
-1 democratic institution in Russia
In Montréal, 1 unions Jewish Unions
-strike pre WW1 era
-changed face of Canadian Labor completely
-salaries, safety, hours
-1910-American union, Ladies Clothing
-international ladies garment workers union
-immigrant Jew workers
-1906-United Garment Workers of America
-Jewish founded as well
1912-Largest strike by United Garment Workers of America -Unions become places where Yiddish culture would flourish
-support radical cultures
-jewish organizations, communities worked
Jewish working class in Montreal-40 years
-1900 to 1940 (WW2)
-half the community
-tool/powerhouse to organize the community from within
-began with left Zionism (political/ideological movement-Jewish national home in Palestine,
ability to govern, Jewish values)
-socialist, communist, stay at home enterprises (organization of unions)
-fighting for the state of Palestine/working class values
-radical changes in society
-“blank slate” in Latin
-a given group in society, religion, color, historical origin, given equal rights
-Jews in Europe did not have equal rights
-Western rights did not receive equal rights-racial background, religion
-1867 signed constitution between wealthy. Women, Jews, aboriginals, French Canada and
others were left out of constitution. *Jews of Canada want same treatment (equal
-early 20 Century, the way it was at the beginning
-there were h