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Lecture

Names to Structures

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHM1321
Professor
Louiseau
Semester
Winter

Description
Converting Names to Structures Converting an organic name to a structure is relatively easy. Work from the back of the name towards the front. First, identify the longest chain and principle functional group. Add numbers to the main chain, then attach the various substituents. The secret is working from the back of the name. Example: nonane This is a simple structure that contains no substituents. Start with the prefix of the main chain “non”. This prefix indicates that there are nine carbons in the chain. Use the suffix to identify the functional group. The suffix is “ane” showing that only sp carbons are present. The structure is complete. Example: 7-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl-4-propyldecane Start by identifying the parent chain. The last chain listed is “decane”. From this name we know that there are 10 carbons in the chain (dec) and no functional groups (ane). Number the carbon chain so you know where to attach substituents. 2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 Now attach the substituents. The name indicates there is a two-carbon group (ethyl) at position 7, two one-carbon groups (dimethyl) at positions 3 and 6, and a three-carbon-group (propyl) at position 4. Example: 4-ethyl-7-methyloctan-3-ol 1 By examination, the parent chain is “octan-3-ol”. To construct this, begin with an 8-carbon chain (octan), and number the carbons. 2 4 6 8 1 3 5 7 The “-3-ol” tells us there is an OH group at position 3. 2 4 6 8 3 1 5 7 OH This completes the parent chain. Ad
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