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Lecture 4

CHM 1311 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Exothermic Process, Calorimetry, Potential Energy


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHM 1311
Professor
Darrin Richeson
Lecture
4

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Thermochemistry
OVERVIEW
Types of Energy
Thermodynamics
Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Measuring Energy Changes: Calorimetry
Enthalpy
The Nature of Energy
The capacity to do work or to produce heat.
Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Kinetic energy is the energy of motion
Ek = 1/2 mv^2
Motion - translation, rotation, vibration
Potential energy is the energy an object possesses by virtue of it position, condition, or
composition
Gravity, electrostatic, chemical
Can be converted into kinetic energy
Units of Energy
SI units for energy is the joule, J
Ek = 1/2mv^2 = kg(m/s)^2 = 1J
We sometimes use the calorie instead of the joule
1 cal = 4.184J
A nutritional Calorie
1 Cal = 1000cal = 1kcal
Some Terminology in Thermochemistry
Systems and Surroundings
System: part of the universe we are interested in
Surroundings: the rest of the universe
Extensive Property
A property that depends on the amount of substance in the system
It is DIVISIBLE
Intensive Property
A property that does not depend on the amount of substance in the system
It is indivisible
Pressure
Energy is the capacity to do work or transfer heat
Work is the movement against a force
W = force x distance
Systems + Surroundings = Universe
The internal energy U, of a system is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of all the
particles present
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