CMN 1148 Lecture Notes - Henri Fayol, Ideal Type, Morale

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
University of Ottawa
Department
Communication
Course
CMN 1148
CHAPTER 2: CLASSICAL APPROACHES
The Machine Metaphor
All theories during the industrial revol’n had one thing in common – the belief that
organizations should be modeled after machines
Learn something about organizations by considering object that an organization “is
like” (ex. an organization is like a pizza”; must have all ingredients)
Organizations like machines cuz of the principles of specialization, standardization,
replaceability, and predictability
Specialization: division of labor
Ex. every part of an engine has specific function
Standardization (replaceability): parts in one machine similar to another
machine; therefore easily replaced
Predictable: machine breaks rationally think through the prob, should be able to
fix it
Theory of Classical Management (Henri Fayol)
Fayol: “father of operational management theory”
Elements of management: what managers should do
5 elements:
1. Planning : best way to attain organizational goals
2. Organizing: arrangement of human resources and evaluation of those
employees
3. Command: set tasks for employees in order to meet organizational goals
4. Coordination: separate activities into a whole
5. Control: comparison btw goals and activities
Technical skills: basic understanding of what you’re to do (position, but
your job is)
Deal with responsibility and role recognition
Ppl skills: ability to work with ppl who are diff than you
Conceptual skills: enough creativity and analytical skills to make good
decisions for the future
Principles of management: how managers should enact these elements
6 principles:
1. Scalar chain (hierarchy of organization)
2. Unity of command (employee receives orders)
3. Unity of direction (similar goals under single supervisor)
4. Division of labor (employees assigned to limited # of specialized tasks)
5. Order: appointed place for each employee and task
6. Span of control: managers most effective if control of limited # of
employees
Principles of Organizational POWER:
Centralization: central management control over decision making and
employee activities
Authority and responsibility: managers should hold authority that
derives from position AND personal characteristics
Discipline: members obedient to rules and managers who enforce
them
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Document Summary

Ex. every part of an engine has specific function. All theories during the industrial revol"n had one thing in common the belief that organizations should be modeled after machines. Learn something about organizations by considering object that an organization is like (ex. an organization is like a pizza ; must have all ingredients) Organizations like machines cuz of the principles of specialization, standardization, replaceability, and predictability. Standardization (replaceability): parts in one machine similar to another machine; therefore easily replaced. Predictable: machine breaks rationally think through the prob, should be able to fix it. Technical skills: basic understanding of what you"re to do (position, but. Ppl skills: ability to work with ppl who are diff than you. Conceptual skills: enough creativity and analytical skills to make good. Principles of management: how managers should enact these elements employees employee activities derives from position and personal characteristics them. Discipline: members obedient to rules and managers who enforce.