Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
UOttawa (30,000)
CMN (2,000)
Lecture 9

CMN4105 Lecture 9: Tab 6


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN 4105
Professor
Mark Lowes
Lecture
9

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 14 pages of the document.
Supreme'Court'of'Canada'/SCC
!"#$%&%$'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'/,0#1!'2,++)*%$34%,*'#4'3.5'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.'%!'#941#+#.7':#1+3%*#5';8#'!%*0.#'$,"%#!'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'%*'!%*0.#'$,"7'&39%*0'
!#16%$#='%4!'34'48#'8#314',&'1,0#1!5'>!"'48#'3""#..3*4!5';8#7'1#.7',*'-#$%!%,*'%*'22<'
23*3-%3*',*'$1,!!'3""#3.5552?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
A,.#'%!!)#'%*'48%!'$3!#B'C834'%!'48#'+#3*%*0',&'D4,'48#'")(.%$D
;,')*-#1!43*-'48%!'%*'48#'$,*4#94'3*-'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#5'
E)!%*#!!'+,-#.
Para'54
F#44%*0'3'01%"',&'48#'*34)1#'3*-'$8313$4#1',&'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'
G*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#!
H5
I#J1#'-#3.%*0'C%48'3'$343.,0)#',&'$,"71%084#-'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'
22<'23*3-%3*'"1,6%-#-'3'!#16%$#='"314%$).31'"8,4,$,"7'!#16%$#'
L*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'(3!%!='%4!'%+"
M4!'"1#$%!#.7'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'48#'3""#..3*4!'1#.7',*'
/#"#34#-'&39',1',*#'4%+#N
;8#'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*',1'48#'"1%634#'413*!+%!!%,*'4834'7,)'83-'%*'22<'23*3-%3*5'
O1#$%!#.7'4834'!#4',&'1#3!,*!'4834'3""#..3*4!'"%$K')"'8#1#5
;8#'"1#$#-#*$#' !#4'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'C#'310)#'8#1#'4834'3"".%#!'8#1#
22<'23*3-%3*'-,#!'*,4'3!!%!4'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'
!
G)1'+)!%$'!#16%$#'481,)08'48#'%*4#1*#4'%!'48#'!3+#'48%*0'P)!4'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'
413*!+%!!%,*'48#'A)"1#+#'2,)14',&'23*3-3'-,#!*Q4'3$$#"4'48%!'310)+#*4
I#'.%6#'%*'3'!#4',&'3&&3%1!'-#&%*#-'(7'$,*!43*4'3*-'1#.#*4.#!!'%**,634%,*!'3*-'
4#$8*,.,07'
<,C'%*-%6%-)3.!')!#'3*-'#9"#1%#*$#' *#C'+#-%3'3*-'!,$%3.'+#-%3'
I#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%**,634%,*',&'8,C'$).4)1#'%4!#.&'3-,"4!'*#C'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
I#'836#'48#'%-#3',&'&,$)!%*0',*'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.
D48#'3""#..3*4!J'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'48#'#9"#$434%,*',&'+).4%".#'!3.#!'
,&'3*7'0%6#*'+)!%$3.'C,1KD
!
I8#*'7,)'+,6#'48%!'+,-#.',*.%*#'48%!'+,-#.'.#*-!'%4!#.&'4,'48#'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'
$8313$4#1'4,'48#'%*4#1*#4'%*'#R$,++#1$#
!
S*7'%*-%6%-)3.'C%48'%*4#1*#4'3$$#!!'83!'48#'",4#*4%3.',&'3$$#!!%*0'3'C#(!%4#'
!
;834'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'1#*-#1!'48#'*34)1#',&'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'4,'48#'
#94#*-'4834'48#',*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1='83!'*,'$,*41,.',6#1'48#'4%+#',&'
3$$#!!='48#'*)+(#1',&'%*-%6%-)3.!='48#'.,$34%,*'&1,+'C8%$8'%*-%6%-)3.!',1')!#1!'
3$$#!!'48#'C#(!%4#5
!
S..',&'48%!',$$)1!'&1,+'48#'%*4#*4%,*',1'-%1#$4%,*='#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'4834'
3..,C!'3$$#!!
!
/#$,0*%4%,*'4834'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#',*'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1!'3$$#!!%*0'3'
C#(!%4#
!
Triggered'by'an'individual'user'
!
;8#'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'!)$8'4834'48#7'836#'3'"1%634#'
$,*6#1!34%,*'C%48'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1
!
;8#'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'triggers
T#03.'+#3*%*0',&'41%00#1%*0'%*'48%!'$,*4#94'!"#3K!'4,'3*'%*4#*4%,*',&'3*'
%*-%6%-)3.
>*-')!#1'3$$#!!#!'C#(!%4#'-#$%-#!'4,'")1$83!#'3'413$K'6%3'-,C*.,3-='4834'%!'3'
$8,%$#',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'R#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'48#1#
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'!)$8'3*',*.%*#'!#16%$#'%!'#&&#$4%6#.7'indiscriminate.'
!
U,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#1#'7,)''31#'1#$#%6%*0'
!
;8#1#'%!'3*'#*4%1#'+).4%4)-#',&'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$
!
?#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'1#$#%6#'2?@'%*'!3+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'".3$#
!
I8#48#1'48#7'1#$#%6#' 48#'-,C*.,3-'!3+#'4%+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'4%+#='%4!'
%*-%!$1%+%*34#5'
!
O1,4#$4%*0'$1#34,1!'1%084!
!
M4'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#48#1'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'31#'1#$#%6%*0'48#'2?@
!
Para'54'
Download
!
Streaming
!
V'47"#!',&'2?@'C#J1#'-#3.%*0'8#1#B
28313$4#1',&'4834'%!'4834'%4Q!'3'private'$,++)*%$34%,*'W'413*!+%!!%,*
!
M&'%4!'"1%634#'-#'&3$4,'48#1#'%!'*,4'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'6%14)#',&'4834'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.
!
S""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'48%!'%!'3'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
/,0#1!'3""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'4834'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'$3!#'%!'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*='
,*.%*#'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1'3*-'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1'481,)08'%*4#1*#4'$,**#$4%,*'41%00#1!'
413*!+%!!%,*
AG2S@'310)#!'4834'48%!'%!'*,4'3'"1%634#'2?@='%*'&3$4'48%!'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'$,*!4%4)4#!'3'
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'
;8#'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS',&&#1')"'3'6#17'%*4#1#!4%*0'
!
:)-0#+#*4'>AS'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'X'YHZ'Y&Z
>!"'C%48'X'YHZ'Y&Z'
!
H[\\'3+#*-+#*4'XYHZY&Z'C3!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'4,'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'
!
23(.#';]'C3!'0#44%*0'3C37'C%48'*,'1,73.4%#!'#4$5'(#$3)!#',&'48#'.3*0)30#
!
E#$3)!#'6#17'(3!%!',&'13-%,'2?@'C3!'8#14^%3*'C36#!'
!
A%0*3.!'31#'$311%#-'(7'48#'C36#!'3*-'1#$#%6#-'(7'3'1#$#%6%*0'%*!41)+#*45
/3-%,',"#134#!'(7'413*!+%44%*0'13-%,'C36#!='<#14^%3*'C36#!
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'4834'4#$8*,.,07'%!'-%&&#1#*4'&1,+'$3(.#';]'4834'-#.%6#1#-' 4,'#*-'
)!#1!'(7'$,39'$3(.#!'
!
/,(#14!,*'65'48,+"!,*'$3!#'
L*-#1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'4#$8*,.,07',&'413*!+%!!%,*'%11#!"#$4%6#',&'48#'
+#-%)+'%*'#3$8',&'48#'%*!43*$#!'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C834'48#'4#$8*,.,07'%!'(7'
C8%$8'4#$8*,.,07'%!5'
;8#'4#$8*,.,07'%*'_)#!4%,*='48#'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'3"".%#!'#_)3.'
;#$8'*#)413.%47'%!'3'"1%*$%".#='%4!'*,4'3'.3C
S'"1%*$%".#'4834'3.+,!4'83!'3'_)3!%R.#03.'!434)!'
O1%*$%".#',&'48#'4#$8*,.,0%$3.'*#)413.%47'
!
E7'0,%*0'(3$K'4,'H[[\'48#'3+#*-+#*4'4,'1#+,6#'13-%,'2?@'3*-'%*!#14'
4#.#2?@='4#.#2?@'(#$,+#!'+,1#'#*$,+"3!!%*0'4#1+
!
/3-%,'2?@'%!'3'*311,C'.3*0)30#='%4'-,#!*Q4'$3"4)1#'23(.#';]',1',48#1'
4#$8*,.,07'
!
;#.#2?@'1#$,0*%^#!'48#'1#3.%4%#!' ,&'2?@'%*-)!417='#9"3*-#-'4,',48#1'4#$8
!
M*'H[\\'+,6%*0'%*'48#'H[[`='4#$8'%**,634%,*',&',*'-#+3*-';]='"37'"#1'6%#C='
A34#..%4#' ;]5'
!
a,)'836#'3..'K%*-!',&'%**,634%,*'3*-'-#6#.,"+#*4!'%*'4#$8*,.,07'
!
M4!'48#%1')!30#='8,C'%*',48#1'C,1-!'4#$8'%!'3-,"4#-
!
;8,!#'-#6#.,"+#*4!'31#'$3"4)1#-'(7'.3*0)30#',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
;834'.3*0)30#'(#$,+#!'6#17'%+"
!
;8#',.-'4#$8*,.,0%#!',1'#31.%#1' (1,3-$3!4%*0'4#$8*,.,0%#!
>505'13-%,'$3(.#';]='A34#..%4#' 48,!#'31#'8%!4,1%$3..7'&,1+!',&'push'
technologies
I8#1#(7'%*'(1,3-$3!4%*0'+,-#.'48#'413*!+%!!%,*'%!'(#%*0'")!8#-'34'48#'
%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'
I834#6#1'%!'(#%*0',&&#1#-'48#'#*-')!#1!'836#'4,'3$$#"4'%4
G*'-#+3*-'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
!
>505'@#4&.%9
!
;8#'")!8'4#$8*,.,0%#!'"1#-34#'pull'technologies''
U%$8,4,+7'Y-%!4%*$4%,*Z'(WC'")!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
/#$,0*%^#'48#'%+".%$34%,*!',&'4834'C8#*'C#'0,'(3$K'4,'48#'%-#3',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
I#'-,*Q4'836#'4#$8'*#)413.%47'%&'")..'4#$8!'31#'41#34#-'-%&&#1#*4.7'&1,+'
")!8'4#$8'C8#*'3"".7%*0'4,'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'
I834'+344#1!'48#*'%!'4834'.,0%$3.'$,*4#94',&'")!8'3*-'")..'R)*4#*3(.#'
M&'7,)'!#4'48#+'3!'-%!4%*$4'3*-',"",!%4%,*3.'48#*'%4'&,..,C!'4834'$,"71%084'
3$4'3"".%#!'-%&&#1#*4.7'4,'48#+'3*-'4834Q!'3*',&&#*$#'4,'"1%*$%".#',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
;834Q!'48#'+,-#.'7,)'3"".7'4,')*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'1,0#1!'$3!#
The'historical'context
!
A#6#13.'6#17'%+"'3+#*-+#*4!'4,'48#'$,"71%084'3$4
M+"'&,1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
;8#'!%0*%&%$3*4',&'4834'$83*0#'%!'!)$8'4834'C834'7,)'836#'%!'48#'
"31.%3+#*4J!'#9"1#!!%,*',&'%4!'%*4#*4%,*5'
;8#'3+#*-+#*4!'31#'#9"1#!!%,*',&'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4'
T#0%!.34%,*'48#1#&,1#'&1,+'3*'#48%$3.' "#1!"#$4%6#'3*'#9"1#!!%,*'
&)148#1+,1#',&'1#3..7'7,)1'$,-%&%$34%,*=',1'.#0%!.34%,*'#*3$4+#*4',&'")(.%$'
",.%$7
O31.%3+#*4!'3+#*-+#*4'%*'H[\\'%!'3'1#!).4',&'7#31!',&'")(.%$'-#(34#='
2?@='$,*!).434%,*='3..'(7'3'C%-#'!"#$41)+',&'%*4#1#!4'
U%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!37'4834'!%0*3.!'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4',&'!#"3134%*0'
1#"1,-)$4%,*'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5
!
>AS'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!3%-B'O31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'4,'!#6#1',1'!#"3134#'
"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!5'I8#*'$83*0#'83""#*#-'%*'XYHZ
Y&Z
?3P,1%47',&'!)"1#+#'$,)14'%*'>AS'!3%-'"31.%3+#*4'-%-*Q4'+3K#'48#'
3+#*-+#*4'4,'!#6#1'"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5'/348#1'"31.%3+#*4'
,*.7'$83*0#-'48#'+#3*!',&'413*!+%44%*0'2?@5'
/3-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'2?@'48#'+3P,1%47'%*'>AS'!3%-'4834'48#7'31#'
1#$,0*%4%,*'48#'$83*0#'%*'48#'means',&'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$5'
?).4%4)-#',&'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'413*!+%!!%,*'$3*',$$)1'
D48#'1#".3$#+#*4',&'48#'C,1-!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'C%48'
D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'!8,).-'(#')*-#1!4,,-'3!'+#1#.7'3!'48#'means'of'
communication' 3'C,1K'R4834'%!='&1,+'13-%,'C36#!'Y'D(7'13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*DZ'
4,'$3(.#'3*-',48#1'&)4)1#'4#$8*,.,0%#!'YD4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*DZ5D
!
<%!4,1%$'.%*K'(WC'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'1%084!'3*-'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
!
O#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!
2,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
/#"1,-)$4%,*'1%084!
;8)!'&31'C#'836#'43.K#-'3(,)4'X'$34#0,1%#!',&'1%084!'%*'48#'$,*4#94',&'48#'
"#*43.,07'$3!#!'Y(#..'23*3-3='>AS='1,0#1!'bbZ''
!
;,'$,++)*%$34#'C3!'8%!4,1%$3..7'.%*K#-'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'3$4%6%47
F,%*0'(3$K'c`'7#31!'%*',)1'.3C'
;834Q!'48#'K#7',&'>AS'%*'4#1+!',&'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'-,C*.,3-'
%!'2?@'4,'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
E#$3)!#'%4'+#1#.7'"1,-)$#!'3'$,"7='%4Q!'P)!4'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*
!
S!'.,*0'3!'7,)'31#'"1,-)$%*0'3'-)13(.#'$,"7'7,)J1#'!%+".7'#*030#-'
%*'1#"1,-)$4%,*'%4'83!'*,48%*0'4,'-,'C%48'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'
")(.%$
!
a,)'$3*'836#'3'"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
a,)'$3*'836#'3'*,*R"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
;8#1#'%!'3'013-#='-%&&#1#*4'*34)1#',&'413*!+%!!%,*d
;8#1#'%!'481#!8,.-'$1,!!#-'C8#*'%4'(#$,+#!'-)13(.#d
I8#*'%4!'*,4'-)13(.#'7,)J1#'%*'48#'-,+3%*',&'!41#3+%*0''d
;8#1#'31#'$#143%*'-#01##!',&'-)13(.#'$,"7
!
I87'%!'3'-,C*.,3-'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4='*,4'3'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'")(.%$'
I834'%!'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084
!
D%*',)1'6%#C='(7'!)(!4%4)4%*0'48#'C,1-'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'%*'H[\\='O31.%3+#*4'
-%-'*,4'%*4#*-'4,'$83*0#'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084D'
!
O1%+31%.7'4,'8#31'!)(+%!!%,*!'3*-'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'431%&&'
%*-##-'C%..'(#'$#14%&%#-
E3!%$'&)*$4%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-',&'23*3-3
!
M4'0,#!'(3$K'4,'#+#10%*0'-37!',&'>R$,++#1$#
;8#'1#$,0*%4%,*'(7'AG2S@'%*'"314%$).31'3+,*0!4',48#1!='4834'%*4#1*#4'3*-'
#R$,++#1$#'",!#-'3'!%0*%&%$3*4'4#$8'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'AG2S@'3*-',48#1'
$,"71%084'8,.-#1!'%*'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'4,'(#'831+#-'
A,'48#7'!,)084'3'431%&&'
;8#7'C3*4#-'$,"71%084'(,31-'4,'3"".7'3'431%&&'4834'C,).-'#*3(.#'AG2S@'
4,'$,..#$4%,*'1,73.4%#!'4,'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'%*4#1*#4'
I3!'-#!%0*#-'%*'!)$8'3'C37'4834'%4'$3"4)1#-'(,48'!41#3+%*0'3*-'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'$1)$%3..7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'$,*$.)-#-'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4'C#1#'indistinguishable
;8#1#&,1#'7,)'836#'V'&)*-3+#*43..7'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
;8#'%+".%$34%,*!'
M+"'4,')*-#1!43*-'48#'!8%&4'&1,+'13-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*5'>!"'4834'
-#(34#'(WC'48#'+3P,1%47'3*-'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS
<%!4,1%$3..7'2?@'1%084!'836#'3.C37!'83-'48%!'.%*K'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'
3$4%6%4%#!
;8#'&3$4'4834'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'3!'+3P,1%47'!3%-'%!'*,4'!#6#1#-'(#$,+#!'
6#17'%+"'4,')*-#1!43*-!'C8#*'7,)'$,6#1'-#$%!%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-
;8#7'-,'!#6#1'2?@'3*-'"#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!'C8#*'$,"71%084'(,31-'!37!'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
U,C*.,3-%*0'%!'!3+#'3!'!41#3+%*0'C8#*'%4'$,+#!'4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$
;8#1#&,1#'%4'&,..,C!'.,0%$3..7'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'6%3'%*4#1*#4'%!'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C#'836#'3'"1,(.#+'(#$3)!#'3'-,C*.,3-'"1,-)$#!'3'
$,"7='%4Q!'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*5'S'!41#3+'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'-,#!'*,4'"1,-)$4%,*'3'
-)13(.#'$,"7',48#1C%!#'%4!'*,4'3'!41#3+
M4'&,..,C!'48#1#&,1#'(7'.,0%$'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'836#'4,'(#'V'
-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
M&'48#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'48#*'$.#31.7'$,"71%084'(,31-'
#11#-'
;834'%!'48#'$,*$.)!%,*',&'A22'%*'(,48'>AS'3*-'/,0#1!'
U%-'*,4'$83..#*0#'$,"71%084'(,31-!'-#4#1+%*34%,*'4834'!41#3+'C3!'
!3+#'3!'-,C*.,3-
!
I87'(#$3)!#',&'48#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#
!
;8#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#'31#'6#17'!"#$%&%$
!
;8#7'C#1#'-,C*.,3-#-'C,1K!'*,4'!41#3+%*0'd
I834'C3!'(#%*0'-#3.4'C%48'>AS'C%48'48#'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
!
Therefore'ESA'did'not'deal'with'streaming'
AG2S@'3"".%#-'&,1';31%&&'VV'
!
ESA'Page'23,'para'25
;8#7'-#3.'C%48'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
]#17'!"#$%&%$'C,1K!
@,4'1#.7%*0'!41%$4.7',*'48#'3$1,*7+
2,6#130#'48#1#'C%48'1#!"#$4'48#1#'4,'13*0#',&'3$4%6%4%#!'4834'31#'$,6#1#-
AG2S@'RA,$%#47',&'2,+",!#1!='S)48,1!'
;8#'A22'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'48#'c'!%0*%&%$3*4'$,"71%084'$3!#!'41#34#-'48#+'3!'3'()*-.#'
I8#*'48#'!)"1#+#'$,)14'$,+#!'4,'1,0#1!'$,++)*%$34%,*'6!5'
AG2S@'%4'83-'4,'-#3.'C%48'C8#48#1',1'*,4'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'#11#-'%*'$,*$.)-%*0'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'!#$4%,*'XYHZY&Z'
D2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$D'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'0#*#13..75'
;,'48#'")(.%$'+#3*%*0'-#"#*-!',*'48#'&3$4'
!
A"#$%&%$3..7'48#7'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'48#'"813!#'D'4,'48#'")(.%$D
;834'+#3*!'%4Q!'3'&%*%!8#-'%!!)#'
!
M*'48#'6#17',"#*%*0',&'48#'1#3!,*!'&,1'P)-0#+#*4'&,1'48%!'$3!#
!
S'&#34)1#',&'/,0#1!'2?@'4,')*-#1!43*-'34'48#'6#17'!4314'%!'C834'7,)'836#'%!'A22'83!'
3.1#3-7'%*'>AS'1#*-#1#-'3'_)#!4%,*',&'C8#48#1'-,C*.,3-',&'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!!)#'
%!'+,,45'
Rogers'then'deals'with'both'streaming'and'downloading'as'fundamental'issues ()4'
,*.7'(#$3)!#'%4!'0,%*0'(3$K'3*-'&%9%*0'48#',1%0%*3.'!$1#C')"'(7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-
A,'48#'(3!%$'&3$4!',&'/,0#1!'
>ASB';8#'#+"%1%$3.'%!!)#'%!'-,C*.,3-%*0'C,1K'(#%*0'6%-#,'03+#'$,*43%*%*0'
$,"71%084#-'+)!%$'C,1K!='C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4!'2?@'4,'")(.%$
/,0#1!'2?@'%!'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'&3$4)3..7='%4!'#+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*'%!'C%48'!41#3+%*05'
>+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*!B'>AS'YU,C*.,3-Z='/,0#1!'YA41#3+%*0Z'
;8#7'0,4'%4'C1,*0'C8#*'48#7'!3%-'-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
!
;8#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*
!
E)4'48#'$,"71%084'3$4'!4%..'3"".%#!'#_)3..7'4,'(,48')*-#1'4#$8W+#-%3'*#)413.%47'
!
I#'836#'4,'*,C'+,6#'48#*'%*4,'3'-%&&#1#*4'31#3',&'.3C='3'_)#!4%,*',&'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C5'
!
;8#7'31#'P,%*#-'(7')*-#1.%*%*0'$,*$#1*!'1)**%*0'481,)08'(,48',&'48#+'C%48'$,*$#1*!'
4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!'-%-'48#'$,"71%084'0#4'%4'C1,*0'34'48#',)4!#4N'S*-'48#7'-%-
;8#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'8#31-'3*'3""#3.'(#$3)!#'%4Q!'3*'3""#3.'$,)14'
!
;8#7'C#1#'8#31%*0'3""#3.'&1,+'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'3!'3'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'(,-7
!
;8%!'$3!#'-%-*Q4'!4314'34'41%3.'
!
I834'C#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%!'A22'%!'(#%*0'3!K#-'%*'48%!'3""#3.'(7'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'4,'
1#$,*!%-#1'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'Y48#'$,)14'(#.,CZ
/3-%$3..7'-%&&#1#*4'C8#*'48#7'&)*$4%,*'3!'3'+#3*!',&'2?@
!
U,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
2,"71%084'(,31-'%!'3'!434)4,17'(,-7'
M*')*-#1!43*-'48#'$3!#'8%!4,17'8#1#'%!'4834'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'31#'3""#3.%*0'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'
$,"71%084'(,31-'4,'$#14%&7';31%&&5
L*-#1!43*-'&)*-3+#*43.'#.#+#*4',&'-#$%!%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-'%!').4%+34#.7'"1,(.#+
A22'-#4#1+%*#!'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'#11#-5'
L*-#1!43*-%*0',&'*34)13.'P)!4%$#'3*-'3-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C
S-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'*,4%,*',&'&)*-3+#*43.'P)!4%$#='48#7'3443$8'4,'
_)#!4%,*!',1'"1,$#-)1#'3*-'"1,$#-)13.'&3%1*#!!5'
<,C'48%*0!',)084'4,'(#N';834'#6,K#!'48#'*,4%,*',&'&3%1*#!!
;8#7'0,4'3'431%&&'&1,+',*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1!'4,'"37'3';31%&&'4,'AG2S@'&,1'
3*7'+)!%$3.'!#16%$#'48#7'+3K#'363%.3(.#'4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'-,C*.,3-'3*-'
!41#3+%*0
!
;8#7'3""#3.'48#'$,"71%084J!'(,31-!'-#$%!%,*'4,'48#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'
a,)'836#'4,'+3K#'3*'3"".%$34%,*'&,1'.#36#'4,'3""#3.'3*-'48#'!)"1#+#'
$,)14'C%..'-#$%-#'C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4'C%..'8#31'7,)1'3""#3.
M*'4#1+!',&'C834'.#6#.',&'$,)14'7,)'3"".7'4,'
;8#7'-%!+%!!#-'48#'3"".%$34%,*='48#7'-%-'*,4'8#31'48#'3""#3.'
M4!'*,4'3'.#*0487'!#4',&'1#3!,*!'
;8#'6#17'$,*$#"4',&'P)-%$%3.'3""#3.'%4!#.&'
;8#'!43*-31-!'4834'31#'3"".%#-'
/,0#1!'#4'3.5'-,'*,4'
!
I834'C#'836#'48#*'%*'4#1+!',&'+,6%*0'7,)1'C37'%*4,'48%!'$3!#'AG2S@'.,6#-'48#'
$,"71%084'(,31-J!'-#$%!%,*5
The'standard'of'reasonableness''1.
The'standard'of'correctness2.
;8#1#'31#'V'4834'C#1#'$,*$#1*#-'%*'48%!'$3!#
!
I87'48#'!)"1#+#'$,)14'3"".7'4,'-%&&#1#*4'!43*-31-!'
!
;8#'3"".%$34%,*',&'48#!#'!43*-31-!'%*'3*-'%4'48#+!#.6#!='48#!#'!43*-31-!'836#'3'
!%0*%&%$3*4'%+"3$4',*'48#').4%+34#'-#4#1+%*34%,*'C8#48#1'!41#3+'$,*!4%4)4#!'
4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'")(.%$'
!
;834Q!'48#'$,)14'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'3""#3.#-'4,'
!
!
What'standards'did'the'federal'court'of'appeal'applied'when'it'considered'the'
appeal'by'Rogers'et'al.'Y48#'&%1!4'3""#3.Z'
;8#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".%#!'3'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'
!
/#3!,*3(.#'R#48%$3.'
!
e)*-3+#*43..7'%!'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.',&'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'#48%$3.'
!
]%!'3'6%!'$1#34,1!'1%084!',1'48#'1%084!',&'$,"71%084'8,.-#1!
!
M!'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.',&',*.%*#'!41#3+%*0'3*-'-,C*.,3-='%!'4834'3*'#48%$3.',*#
!
A)"1#+#'$,)14'3"".%#!'4,'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'
!
S'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#'%!'*,4'3'!41%$4'3!'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'H5
2,*!%-#1%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'48#'P)-0#+#*4'%*'_)#!4%,*'%!'%4'1#3!,*3(.#'%*'!)$8'3'
-#4#1+%*34%,*'48#1#'%!'48%!'#.#+#*4',&'-#&#1#*$#'4834'%!'"3%-'4,'!434)4,17'(,-7
!
;8#'%-#3'%!'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'83!'3*'#.#+#*4',&'#9"#14%!#'%!'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
%4!'8,+#'!434)4#!'
!
;8#7'31#'0,645'(,-%#!'4834'836#'!434)4,17'3)48,1%47'
!
O1,6%*$%3.'8)+3*'1%084!'$,++%!!%,*='!3+#'48%*0
!
;8#!#'31#'0,6#1*%*0'(,-%#!'4834'836#'!434)4,17'1%084!'4,'0,6#1*'+344#1!')*-#1'
48#%1')+(1#..3
!
A43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'%!'!)$8'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'%!'%*'-#&#1#*$#'
!
The'standard'of'reasonableness
U#3.!'C%48'!41%$4'_)#!4%,*!',&'.3C'
!
2,"71%084'%!'3'$1#34)1#',&'!434)4#'
!
A434)4#!'31#'.3C'Y48#'3"".%$34%,*',&'.3CZ
!
The'standard'of'correctness
E,31-J!'-#4#1+%*34%,*',&'C834'$,*!4%4)4#!'3'D$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'")(.%$D'
)*-#1'48#'3$4'4,'(#'1#3!,*3(.#'
!
e#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".7'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'$,*$.)-#-'4834'
$,"71%084'(,31-'-#$%!%,*'C3!'%*'&3$4'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'-%!+%!!'/,0#1!'$3!#'
!
/,0#1!'3"".7'&,1'.#36#'&,1'3""#3.'3*-'!)"1#+#'$,)14'013*4!'48#'3""#3.'
!
e#-#13.'$,)14',&'3"".7'-#$.%*#'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.',*'48#'01,)*-!'4834'(3!#-',*'
4834'1#6%#C'C8#1#'(7'C#'3"".7'48#'!43*-31-'4,'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'48#1#'31#'*,4'
01,)*-!'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.5
!
;8#'$,"71%084'(,31-'C8%$8'C#'-%&&#1'4,'C8#1#'31#'*,'01,)*-!'4,'48#'3""#3.='
48#1#&,1#'C#'-%!+%!!'48#'3""#3.
!
Para'9
M4'!37!'4834'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".%#-'48#'C1,*0'!43*-31-
!
M4'!8,).-J6#'3"".%#-'48#'P)-%$%3.'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'
!
;8#'$,"71%084'(,31-J!'301##+#*4'4,'$#14%&7'48#'431%&&'%!'3'!41%$4'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C'
3*-'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'-,#!'*,4'-#&#1'4,'3'!434)4,17'(,-7
!
M4Q!'3'!41%$4'+344#1',&'.3C
!
;834Q!'48#'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!
!
L*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'-%&&#1#*$#'(WC'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'$,11#$4*#!!'3!'3'(3!%$'
&)*-3+#*43.'$,*$#"4!'
!
A22'-#$%-#!'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.
G*'48#'01,)*-!',&'$,11#$4*#!!'A22'413*!+%!!%,*'6%3',*.%*#'!41#3+%*0'%!'%*'&3$4'2?@'4,'
")(.%$
;8#'%!!)#'%*'48%!'$3!#'83!'(##*'310)#-'(7'48#'"314%#!'3!'3'")1#'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C5
!
;8#'C8,.#'%!!)#'C834'%!'48#'+#3*%*0',&'D4,'48#'")(.%$D'XYHZY&Z'4834Q!'C834'48#7'
31#'310)%*0
!
;8#7'31#'310)%*0'6#17'-%&&#1#*4'%*4#1"1#434%,*!',&'48#'.3C='!"#$%&%$3..7'2?@'4,'
48#'")(.%$
!
;8%!'#*4%1#'$3!#'%!'3'")1#'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C
!
The'meaning'of'3(1)(f)'that'is'a'pure'question'of'law'
!
I8%$8'%!'C87'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'(7'e#-#13.'2,)14',&'S""#3.'C3!'
%*$,11#$4'
!
M4'%!'*,4'3'+%9%*0',&'.3C'3*-'&3$4!'%4'%!'!41%$4.7'3'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C
!
M4'%!'%*'&3$4'!#44%*0'3'"1#$#-#-'48#'A22
!
M11#!"#$4%6#'48#'+#-%)+',1'4#$8'%*'_)#!4%,*'%4'%!'3.C37!'3'_)#!4%,*',&'&3$4='*,4'3'
+%9%*0',&'&3$4!'3*-'.3C
!
;8%!'$3!#'"1#!#*4!'3*'%!!)#'C8#1#'C#'31#'-#3.%*0'C%48'413*!+%!!%,*',&'$,"71%084'
C,1K!'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4='3*-'C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4Q!'3'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'48%!'%!'3*'
#941%$3(.#' _)#!4%,*',&'.3C5'
!
;8#1#&,1#'%4!'3.C37!'3'_)#!4%,*',&'3"".7%*0'3*-'48#'!43*-31-',&'P)-%$%3.'1#6%#C'
C%..'3.C37!'(#'3'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!
!
Para'20
>.#+#*4',&'48#'1#3!,*!'C8%$8'#+"83!%^#!'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
!
E3$K'4,'")!8'+,-#.',&'4#$8*,.,07'
!
M*41%*!%$'"1%*$%".#'4834'A22'-#!"%4#'48#'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#+#*4'%*'>AS='48#'+3P,1%47'
,&'A22'%*'48#'"#*4,.,07'4834'"1%*$%".#',&'4#$8'*#)413.%47'%!'$#*413.'4,'-#3.%*0'C%48'
$,"71%084'3$4'3*-'%*&,'!,$%#47''
!
Para'36
/%084'4,'2?@'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'%!'3'4#$8'*#)413.'3""1,3$8'
!
Para'37
c`'7#31'8%!4,1%$3.'1#.34%,*!8%"'(WC'2?@'3*-'"#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!
!
2?@'1%084!'31#'&)*-3+#*43..7'.%*K#-'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'3$4%6%4%#!
!
48#'H[\\'3+#*-+#*4',&'48%!'.3*0)30#'-%-'*,4'!#6#1'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"
!
I8#*'C#'1#3-'$,"71%084'3$4='48#'1%084'4,'"#1&,1+'%!'!4%..'&)*-3+#*43..7'.%*K#-'4,'
1%084'4,'2?@5
!
;834'%!'!#"3134#'&1,+'1#"1,-)$4%,*'1%084!
!
;8#'*#)413.'.3*0)30#',&'48#'3$4'%4!#.&'XYHZY&Z
!
e,..,C%*0'48#'V`HV'3+#*-+#*4='(7'48#'$,"71%084'+,-#1*%^34%,*'3$4
!
G*#',&'48#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*='48#1#&,1#'$,)14!'31#'0#*#13..7'1#_)%1#-'4,'
%*4#1"1#4'$,"71%084'3$4'3$$,1-%*0'4,'48#',1%0%*3.'%*4#*4%,*',&'48#'.#0%!.34%6#' (,-7'
4834'"3!!'48#'.3C5'
!
G*.7'.#0%!.34%6#'(13*$8'.#0%!.34#!'
!
T#0%!.34%6#'
!
>9#$)4%6#
!
:)-%$%3.
!
G)4'F,645'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'48#'%-#3',&'X'.#6#.!',&'0,645
!
G(65'P)-%$%3.'%*4#1"1#434%,*',&'48#'.3*0)30#',&'.#0%!.34%,*'%!'1#_)%1#-
!
M*'%*4#1"1#4%*0'.3*0)30#',&'3'!434)4#='48#'$,)14!'31#'1#_)%1#-'4,'1#3-'48#'!434)4#'
%*'_)#!4%,*''1#!"#$4%*0'48#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*
!
M&',*.7'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'*,4'$.#31='31#'P)-0#!'3..,C#-'4,'#*030#'%*'
!)(!43*4%6#'3*-'C%-#'%*4#1"1#434%,*',&'48#'.3*0)30#'
!
M*'48%!'$3!#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'3!'$.#31
!
M4!'%*4#*4'C3!'4,'+3K#'!#$4%,*'XYHZY&Z'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'*#)413.
!
M&'%4!'4#$8'*#)413.'48#1#'%!'3'&,1(#313*$#'8#1#'4834'%11#!"#$4%6#',&'*#C'
+#-%)+',&'4#$8'4834'31#'-#6#.,"+#*4='C8%$8'#*3(.#')!'4,'#*030#'%*'
",%*4R4,R",%*4'413*!+%!!%,*'C8#*'41%00#1#-'(7'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1='48#'
$,"71%084'3$4'3"".%#!5
!
I834'C3!'%4!'#9"1#!!#-'%*4#*4%,*
!
Para'38
O313'Xf'3*-'X\'31#'(1,3-'$,*$#"4)3.'!434#+#*4!''
A%0*%&%$3*4'.%*K'(WC'/,(#1!4,*'6!5';8,+"!,*='>AS='3*-'/,0#1!'$3!#
!
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
!
2,*$#"4',&'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
!
2,"71%084'3$4'!8,).-'D$,*4%*)#D'4,'3"".7'
!
;8#'C,1-'D4,'$,*4%*)#D'%!'3'!%0*%&%#1',&'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'4834'
$,"71%084'3$4'%!'3*-'!83..'$,*4%*)#'4,'(#'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'*#)413.'%*$.)-%*0'
+#-%3',&'+,1#'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'3-63*$#-',*#!
!
O)!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!'3!'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*='%4'1#*-#1!'4834'
-%$8,4,+7'%*63.%-='%*,"#134%6#5
!
M*'3'!#*!#'48#'6#17'$34#0,1%#!',&'")!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!='48#'
-%!4%*$4%,*'(WC'48,!#'V'31#',*.7'63.)3(.#'3!'$34#0,1%#!
!
M*'3*',*4,.,0%$3.'Y%-#3',1'*34)1#',&'(#%*0Z'8,C'3'$34#0,17'83!'(##*'%*'3*-'
,&'%4!#.&='48%!'-%$8,4,+7'%4!#.&'%!',*.7')!#-'4,'-%&&#1#*4%34#'-%&&#1#*4'47"#!'
,&'4#$8*,.,0%#!5'
!
I8#*'7,)'C3*4'4,')*-#1!43*-'$,"71%084'3$4'3!'3'$1#34)1#',&'!434)#='3*-'
3*7'P)-%$%3.'1#6%#C',&'-#$%!%,*!'3&&#$4%*0'$,"71%084'3$4'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
#9$.)!%6#'1%084'4,'$,++)*%$34#'4,'")(.%$='48#*'4834'-%!4%*$4%,*'%!'
%11#.#63*4
!
%4'"1,4#$4!'48#'1%084!',&'3)48,1!'3*-',48#1!'
!
Robertson'vs.'Thompson'Para'49
!
;8%!'%-#3',&'&,1+
!
;8#'&,1+',&'4#$8*,.,07'%!'%+"'
!
;8#'&,1+'4834'43K#!'".3$#'8#1#'%!'streaming
!
A41#3+%*0'%!'48#'+#3*!',&'2?@'4834'".37!'#+"%1%$3..7'%*'/,0#1!
!
I834J!'48#'&,1+
!
;#$8*,.,0%$3.'*#)413.%47'%!'48#*'3'K#7',"#134%6#'4#1+'
!
D;8#'(1,3-'-#&%*%4%,*',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'C3!'3-,"4#-'"1#$%!#.7'4,'"1,6%-#'
&,1'3'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084'*,4'4,'-#"#*-#*4',*'48#'&,1+',&'4#$8*,.,075'D
!
Para'39
;8#1#'%!'3'8,.-#1',&'3'$,"71%084
!
;8#'8,.-#1',&'3'$,"71%084'%!'*,4'3.C37!'48#'$1#34,1',1'*,4'3.C37!'48#'3)48,1',&'
48#'C,1K
!
M4!'%+"'4,'1#$,0*%^#'4834'$1#34,1!'31#'3'-%!4%*$4'$34#0,17='()4'48#1#'31#'3.!,',48#1!
M4Q!'48#')*-#1.7%*0'2?@'3$4%6%47'4834'+344#1!
!
;8#7'31#'!37%*0'4,'/,0#1!'3*-'48#',48#1'3""#..3*4!='-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C834'
()!%*#!!'+,-#.'7,)'836#'$8,!#*'4,'$,*6#7'$,"71%084!='C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
!41#3+%*0'48%!'(3.3*$#'%!'*,4'!41)$K'C8#1#'48#'#9%!4#*$#',&'$,"71%084'"1,4#$4%,*'
-#"#*-!'+#1#.7',*'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.5'
!
M*'48%!'$3!#'C834'7,)'836#'%!'/,0#1!'!37'%*'#&&#$4'$,"71%084'3$4'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
$,++)*%$34%,*'")(.%$'%4'-,#!*Q4'3"".7'8#1#'(#$3)!#',)1'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'-,#!*Q4'
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$=',)1'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'!%+".7'2?@',1'"1%634#'2?@'(WC',)1'
C#(!%4#'3*-'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1!'48#1#&,1#'$,"71%084'3$4'-,#!*Q4'3"".7'$3)!#'%4!'
*,4'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
!
;8#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%4!#.&'!8,).-*Q4'-#4#1+%*#'C8#48#1'$,"71%084'3$4'3"".%#!',1'
*,4'
!
The'underlying'CMN'activity'in'this'case'is'streaming'
;8#'*34)1#',&'4834'3$4%6%47'C834'7,)'836#'%!'*,4'3'!#1%#!',&'&39'413*!+%!!%,*',&'
!%*0.#'$,"7',&'.#03.'-#$%!%,*'Y%*'22<Z='()4'1348#1'3*'%*-%!$1%+%*3*4'3*-'%*-##-'
3.+,!4'%*&%*%4#'*,5',&'413*!+%!!%,*!'&1,+'3'C#(!%4#'4,'3*'%*&%*%4#'*,5',&')!#1!'3..'
,&'C8,+'31#'41%00#1%*0'3'!41#3+5
!
;834'1#*-#1#-'3'-#$%!%,*'&1,+'A22=',*'48#'(3!%!',&'4834'C#'836#'3'!#1%#!'
,&'413*!+%!!%,*',&'3'!%*0.#'$,"71%084#-'C,1K'4834Q!'*,4'3'2?@'4,'48#'
")(.%$
!
M4'3"".%#!'4,'48%!'$3!#='C8#*'7,)'$,*!%-#1'22<'23*3-%3*='3*-'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'
&3$4!',&'22<'23*3-%3*='%4'$,*!4%4)4#-'3'!#1%#!',&'413*!+%!!%,*='%4'C3!'3*3.7^#-'
(3!#-',*'#3$8'%*-%6%-)3.'413*!+%!!%,*
!
<,C#6#1'C8#*'7,)'(1%*0'4834'-#$%!%,*'3*-'!#4',&'&3$4!'4,'/,0#1!='%4'-,#!*Q4'8,.-'
(#$3)!#'&)*-3+#*43..7'(#$3)!#'48#'6#17'*34)1#',&'!41#3+%*0'%4!'*,4''3'"1%634#'
2?@='%*'22<'%4'C3!'3'"1%634#'2?@5'
!
Para'40
Lecture'9')Tab'6
I#-*#!-37=' @,6#+(#1' HH='V`Hc
fB`['O?

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Supreme'Court'of'Canada'/SCC
!"#$%&%$'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'/,0#1!'2,++)*%$34%,*'#4'3.5'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.'%!'#941#+#.7':#1+3%*#5';8#'!%*0.#'$,"%#!'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'%*'!%*0.#'$,"7'&39%*0'
!#16%$#='%4!'34'48#'8#314',&'1,0#1!5'>!"'48#'3""#..3*4!5';8#7'1#.7',*'-#$%!%,*'%*'22<'
23*3-%3*',*'$1,!!'3""#3.5552?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
A,.#'%!!)#'%*'48%!'$3!#B'C834'%!'48#'+#3*%*0',&'D4,'48#'")(.%$D
;,')*-#1!43*-'48%!'%*'48#'$,*4#94'3*-'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#5'
E)!%*#!!'+,-#.
Para'54
F#44%*0'3'01%"',&'48#'*34)1#'3*-'$8313$4#1',&'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'
G*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#!H5
I#J1#'-#3.%*0'C%48'3'$343.,0)#',&'$,"71%084#-'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'
;8#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'-%!4%*0)%!8#-'&1,+'22<'23*3-%3*
22<'23*3-%3*'"1,6%-#-'3'!#16%$#='"314%$).31'"8,4,$,"7'!#16%$#'
L*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'(3!%!='%4!'%+"
M4!'"1#$%!#.7'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'48#'3""#..3*4!'1#.7',*'
/#"#34#-'&39',1',*#'4%+#N
;8#'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*',1'48#'"1%634#'413*!+%!!%,*'4834'7,)'83-'%*'22<'23*3-%3*5'
O1#$%!#.7'4834'!#4',&'1#3!,*!'4834'3""#..3*4!'"%$K')"'8#1#5
;8#'"1#$#-#*$#' !#4'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'C#'310)#'8#1#'4834'3"".%#!'8#1#
22<'23*3-%3*'-,#!'*,4'3!!%!4'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'
!
G)1'+)!%$'!#16%$#'481,)08'48#'%*4#1*#4'%!'48#'!3+#'48%*0'P)!4'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'
413*!+%!!%,*'48#'A)"1#+#'2,)14',&'23*3-3'-,#!*Q4'3$$#"4'48%!'310)+#*4
I#'.%6#'%*'3'!#4',&'3&&3%1!'-#&%*#-'(7'$,*!43*4'3*-'1#.#*4.#!!'%**,634%,*!'3*-'
4#$8*,.,07'
<,C'%*-%6%-)3.!')!#'3*-'#9"#1%#*$#' *#C'+#-%3'3*-'!,$%3.'+#-%3'
I#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%**,634%,*',&'8,C'$).4)1#'%4!#.&'3-,"4!'*#C'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
I#'836#'48#'%-#3',&'&,$)!%*0',*'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.
D48#'3""#..3*4!J'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'48#'#9"#$434%,*',&'+).4%".#'!3.#!'
,&'3*7'0%6#*'+)!%$3.'C,1KD
!
I8#*'7,)'+,6#'48%!'+,-#.',*.%*#'48%!'+,-#.'.#*-!'%4!#.&'4,'48#'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'
$8313$4#1'4,'48#'%*4#1*#4'%*'#R$,++#1$#
!
S*7'%*-%6%-)3.'C%48'%*4#1*#4'3$$#!!'83!'48#'",4#*4%3.',&'3$$#!!%*0'3'C#(!%4#'
!
;834'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'1#*-#1!'48#'*34)1#',&'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'4,'48#'
#94#*-'4834'48#',*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1='83!'*,'$,*41,.',6#1'48#'4%+#',&'
3$$#!!='48#'*)+(#1',&'%*-%6%-)3.!='48#'.,$34%,*'&1,+'C8%$8'%*-%6%-)3.!',1')!#1!'
3$$#!!'48#'C#(!%4#5
!
S..',&'48%!',$$)1!'&1,+'48#'%*4#*4%,*',1'-%1#$4%,*='#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'4834'
3..,C!'3$$#!!
!
/#$,0*%4%,*'4834'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#',*'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1!'3$$#!!%*0'3'
C#(!%4#
!
Triggered'by'an'individual'user'
!
;8#'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'!)$8'4834'48#7'836#'3'"1%634#'
$,*6#1!34%,*'C%48'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1
!
;8#'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'triggers
T#03.'+#3*%*0',&'41%00#1%*0'%*'48%!'$,*4#94'!"#3K!'4,'3*'%*4#*4%,*',&'3*'
%*-%6%-)3.
>*-')!#1'3$$#!!#!'C#(!%4#'-#$%-#!'4,'")1$83!#'3'413$K'6%3'-,C*.,3-='4834'%!'3'
$8,%$#',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'R#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'48#1#
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'!)$8'3*',*.%*#'!#16%$#'%!'#&&#$4%6#.7'indiscriminate.'
!
U,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#1#'7,)''31#'1#$#%6%*0'
!
;8#1#'%!'3*'#*4%1#'+).4%4)-#',&'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$
!
?#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'1#$#%6#'2?@'%*'!3+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'".3$#
!
I8#48#1'48#7'1#$#%6#' 48#'-,C*.,3-'!3+#'4%+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'4%+#='%4!'
%*-%!$1%+%*34#5'
!
O1,4#$4%*0'$1#34,1!'1%084!
!
M4'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#48#1'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'31#'1#$#%6%*0'48#'2?@
!
Para'54'
Download
!
Streaming
!
V'47"#!',&'2?@'C#J1#'-#3.%*0'8#1#B
28313$4#1',&'4834'%!'4834'%4Q!'3'private'$,++)*%$34%,*'W'413*!+%!!%,*
!
M&'%4!'"1%634#'-#'&3$4,'48#1#'%!'*,4'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'6%14)#',&'4834'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.
!
S""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'48%!'%!'3'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
/,0#1!'3""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'4834'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'$3!#'%!'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*='
,*.%*#'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1'3*-'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1'481,)08'%*4#1*#4'$,**#$4%,*'41%00#1!'
413*!+%!!%,*
AG2S@'310)#!'4834'48%!'%!'*,4'3'"1%634#'2?@='%*'&3$4'48%!'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'$,*!4%4)4#!'3'
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'
;8#'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS',&&#1')"'3'6#17'%*4#1#!4%*0'
!
:)-0#+#*4'>AS'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'X'YHZ'Y&Z
>!"'C%48'X'YHZ'Y&Z'
!
H[\\'3+#*-+#*4'XYHZY&Z'C3!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'4,'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'
!
23(.#';]'C3!'0#44%*0'3C37'C%48'*,'1,73.4%#!'#4$5'(#$3)!#',&'48#'.3*0)30#
!
E#$3)!#'6#17'(3!%!',&'13-%,'2?@'C3!'8#14^%3*'C36#!'
!
A%0*3.!'31#'$311%#-'(7'48#'C36#!'3*-'1#$#%6#-'(7'3'1#$#%6%*0'%*!41)+#*45
/3-%,',"#134#!'(7'413*!+%44%*0'13-%,'C36#!='<#14^%3*'C36#!
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'4834'4#$8*,.,07'%!'-%&&#1#*4'&1,+'$3(.#';]'4834'-#.%6#1#-' 4,'#*-'
)!#1!'(7'$,39'$3(.#!'
!
/,(#14!,*'65'48,+"!,*'$3!#'
L*-#1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'4#$8*,.,07',&'413*!+%!!%,*'%11#!"#$4%6#',&'48#'
+#-%)+'%*'#3$8',&'48#'%*!43*$#!'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C834'48#'4#$8*,.,07'%!'(7'
C8%$8'4#$8*,.,07'%!5'
;8#'4#$8*,.,07'%*'_)#!4%,*='48#'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'3"".%#!'#_)3.'
;#$8'*#)413.%47'%!'3'"1%*$%".#='%4!'*,4'3'.3C
S'"1%*$%".#'4834'3.+,!4'83!'3'_)3!%R.#03.'!434)!'
O1%*$%".#',&'48#'4#$8*,.,0%$3.'*#)413.%47'
!
E7'0,%*0'(3$K'4,'H[[\'48#'3+#*-+#*4'4,'1#+,6#'13-%,'2?@'3*-'%*!#14'
4#.#2?@='4#.#2?@'(#$,+#!'+,1#'#*$,+"3!!%*0'4#1+
!
/3-%,'2?@'%!'3'*311,C'.3*0)30#='%4'-,#!*Q4'$3"4)1#'23(.#';]',1',48#1'
4#$8*,.,07'
!
;#.#2?@'1#$,0*%^#!'48#'1#3.%4%#!' ,&'2?@'%*-)!417='#9"3*-#-'4,',48#1'4#$8
!
M*'H[\\'+,6%*0'%*'48#'H[[`='4#$8'%**,634%,*',&',*'-#+3*-';]='"37'"#1'6%#C='
A34#..%4#' ;]5'
!
a,)'836#'3..'K%*-!',&'%**,634%,*'3*-'-#6#.,"+#*4!'%*'4#$8*,.,07'
!
M4!'48#%1')!30#='8,C'%*',48#1'C,1-!'4#$8'%!'3-,"4#-
!
;8,!#'-#6#.,"+#*4!'31#'$3"4)1#-'(7'.3*0)30#',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
;834'.3*0)30#'(#$,+#!'6#17'%+"
!
;8#',.-'4#$8*,.,0%#!',1'#31.%#1' (1,3-$3!4%*0'4#$8*,.,0%#!
>505'13-%,'$3(.#';]='A34#..%4#' 48,!#'31#'8%!4,1%$3..7'&,1+!',&'push'
technologies
I8#1#(7'%*'(1,3-$3!4%*0'+,-#.'48#'413*!+%!!%,*'%!'(#%*0'")!8#-'34'48#'
%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'
I834#6#1'%!'(#%*0',&&#1#-'48#'#*-')!#1!'836#'4,'3$$#"4'%4
G*'-#+3*-'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
!
>505'@#4&.%9
!
;8#'")!8'4#$8*,.,0%#!'"1#-34#'pull'technologies''
U%$8,4,+7'Y-%!4%*$4%,*Z'(WC'")!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
/#$,0*%^#'48#'%+".%$34%,*!',&'4834'C8#*'C#'0,'(3$K'4,'48#'%-#3',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
I#'-,*Q4'836#'4#$8'*#)413.%47'%&'")..'4#$8!'31#'41#34#-'-%&&#1#*4.7'&1,+'
")!8'4#$8'C8#*'3"".7%*0'4,'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'
I834'+344#1!'48#*'%!'4834'.,0%$3.'$,*4#94',&'")!8'3*-'")..'R)*4#*3(.#'
M&'7,)'!#4'48#+'3!'-%!4%*$4'3*-',"",!%4%,*3.'48#*'%4'&,..,C!'4834'$,"71%084'
3$4'3"".%#!'-%&&#1#*4.7'4,'48#+'3*-'4834Q!'3*',&&#*$#'4,'"1%*$%".#',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
;834Q!'48#'+,-#.'7,)'3"".7'4,')*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'1,0#1!'$3!#
The'historical'context
!
A#6#13.'6#17'%+"'3+#*-+#*4!'4,'48#'$,"71%084'3$4
M+"'&,1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
;8#'!%0*%&%$3*4',&'4834'$83*0#'%!'!)$8'4834'C834'7,)'836#'%!'48#'
"31.%3+#*4J!'#9"1#!!%,*',&'%4!'%*4#*4%,*5'
;8#'3+#*-+#*4!'31#'#9"1#!!%,*',&'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4'
T#0%!.34%,*'48#1#&,1#'&1,+'3*'#48%$3.' "#1!"#$4%6#'3*'#9"1#!!%,*'
&)148#1+,1#',&'1#3..7'7,)1'$,-%&%$34%,*=',1'.#0%!.34%,*'#*3$4+#*4',&'")(.%$'
",.%$7
O31.%3+#*4!'3+#*-+#*4'%*'H[\\'%!'3'1#!).4',&'7#31!',&'")(.%$'-#(34#='
2?@='$,*!).434%,*='3..'(7'3'C%-#'!"#$41)+',&'%*4#1#!4'
U%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!37'4834'!%0*3.!'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4',&'!#"3134%*0'
1#"1,-)$4%,*'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5
!
>AS'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!3%-B'O31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'4,'!#6#1',1'!#"3134#'
"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!5'I8#*'$83*0#'83""#*#-'%*'XYHZ
Y&Z
?3P,1%47',&'!)"1#+#'$,)14'%*'>AS'!3%-'"31.%3+#*4'-%-*Q4'+3K#'48#'
3+#*-+#*4'4,'!#6#1'"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5'/348#1'"31.%3+#*4'
,*.7'$83*0#-'48#'+#3*!',&'413*!+%44%*0'2?@5'
/3-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'2?@'48#'+3P,1%47'%*'>AS'!3%-'4834'48#7'31#'
1#$,0*%4%,*'48#'$83*0#'%*'48#'means',&'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$5'
?).4%4)-#',&'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'413*!+%!!%,*'$3*',$$)1'
D48#'1#".3$#+#*4',&'48#'C,1-!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'C%48'
D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'!8,).-'(#')*-#1!4,,-'3!'+#1#.7'3!'48#'means'of'
communication' 3'C,1K'R4834'%!='&1,+'13-%,'C36#!'Y'D(7'13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*DZ'
4,'$3(.#'3*-',48#1'&)4)1#'4#$8*,.,0%#!'YD4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*DZ5D
!
<%!4,1%$'.%*K'(WC'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'1%084!'3*-'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
!
O#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!
2,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
/#"1,-)$4%,*'1%084!
;8)!'&31'C#'836#'43.K#-'3(,)4'X'$34#0,1%#!',&'1%084!'%*'48#'$,*4#94',&'48#'
"#*43.,07'$3!#!'Y(#..'23*3-3='>AS='1,0#1!'bbZ''
!
;,'$,++)*%$34#'C3!'8%!4,1%$3..7'.%*K#-'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'3$4%6%47
F,%*0'(3$K'c`'7#31!'%*',)1'.3C'
;834Q!'48#'K#7',&'>AS'%*'4#1+!',&'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'-,C*.,3-'
%!'2?@'4,'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
E#$3)!#'%4'+#1#.7'"1,-)$#!'3'$,"7='%4Q!'P)!4'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*
!
S!'.,*0'3!'7,)'31#'"1,-)$%*0'3'-)13(.#'$,"7'7,)J1#'!%+".7'#*030#-'
%*'1#"1,-)$4%,*'%4'83!'*,48%*0'4,'-,'C%48'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'
")(.%$
!
a,)'$3*'836#'3'"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
a,)'$3*'836#'3'*,*R"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
;8#1#'%!'3'013-#='-%&&#1#*4'*34)1#',&'413*!+%!!%,*d
;8#1#'%!'481#!8,.-'$1,!!#-'C8#*'%4'(#$,+#!'-)13(.#d
I8#*'%4!'*,4'-)13(.#'7,)J1#'%*'48#'-,+3%*',&'!41#3+%*0''d
;8#1#'31#'$#143%*'-#01##!',&'-)13(.#'$,"7
!
I87'%!'3'-,C*.,3-'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4='*,4'3'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'")(.%$'
I834'%!'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084
!
D%*',)1'6%#C='(7'!)(!4%4)4%*0'48#'C,1-'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'%*'H[\\='O31.%3+#*4'
-%-'*,4'%*4#*-'4,'$83*0#'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084D'
!
O1%+31%.7'4,'8#31'!)(+%!!%,*!'3*-'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'431%&&'
%*-##-'C%..'(#'$#14%&%#-
E3!%$'&)*$4%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-',&'23*3-3
!
M4'0,#!'(3$K'4,'#+#10%*0'-37!',&'>R$,++#1$#
;8#'1#$,0*%4%,*'(7'AG2S@'%*'"314%$).31'3+,*0!4',48#1!='4834'%*4#1*#4'3*-'
#R$,++#1$#'",!#-'3'!%0*%&%$3*4'4#$8'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'AG2S@'3*-',48#1'
$,"71%084'8,.-#1!'%*'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'4,'(#'831+#-'
A,'48#7'!,)084'3'431%&&'
;8#7'C3*4#-'$,"71%084'(,31-'4,'3"".7'3'431%&&'4834'C,).-'#*3(.#'AG2S@'
4,'$,..#$4%,*'1,73.4%#!'4,'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'%*4#1*#4'
I3!'-#!%0*#-'%*'!)$8'3'C37'4834'%4'$3"4)1#-'(,48'!41#3+%*0'3*-'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'$1)$%3..7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'$,*$.)-#-'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4'C#1#'indistinguishable
;8#1#&,1#'7,)'836#'V'&)*-3+#*43..7'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
;8#'%+".%$34%,*!'
M+"'4,')*-#1!43*-'48#'!8%&4'&1,+'13-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*5'>!"'4834'
-#(34#'(WC'48#'+3P,1%47'3*-'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS
<%!4,1%$3..7'2?@'1%084!'836#'3.C37!'83-'48%!'.%*K'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'
3$4%6%4%#!
;8#'&3$4'4834'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'3!'+3P,1%47'!3%-'%!'*,4'!#6#1#-'(#$,+#!'
6#17'%+"'4,')*-#1!43*-!'C8#*'7,)'$,6#1'-#$%!%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-
;8#7'-,'!#6#1'2?@'3*-'"#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!'C8#*'$,"71%084'(,31-'!37!'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
U,C*.,3-%*0'%!'!3+#'3!'!41#3+%*0'C8#*'%4'$,+#!'4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$
;8#1#&,1#'%4'&,..,C!'.,0%$3..7'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'6%3'%*4#1*#4'%!'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C#'836#'3'"1,(.#+'(#$3)!#'3'-,C*.,3-'"1,-)$#!'3'
$,"7='%4Q!'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*5'S'!41#3+'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'-,#!'*,4'"1,-)$4%,*'3'
-)13(.#'$,"7',48#1C%!#'%4!'*,4'3'!41#3+
M4'&,..,C!'48#1#&,1#'(7'.,0%$'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'836#'4,'(#'V'
-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
M&'48#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'48#*'$.#31.7'$,"71%084'(,31-'
#11#-'
;834'%!'48#'$,*$.)!%,*',&'A22'%*'(,48'>AS'3*-'/,0#1!'
U%-'*,4'$83..#*0#'$,"71%084'(,31-!'-#4#1+%*34%,*'4834'!41#3+'C3!'
!3+#'3!'-,C*.,3-
!
I87'(#$3)!#',&'48#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#
!
;8#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#'31#'6#17'!"#$%&%$
!
;8#7'C#1#'-,C*.,3-#-'C,1K!'*,4'!41#3+%*0'd
I834'C3!'(#%*0'-#3.4'C%48'>AS'C%48'48#'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
!
Therefore'ESA'did'not'deal'with'streaming'
AG2S@'3"".%#-'&,1';31%&&'VV'
!
ESA'Page'23,'para'25
;8#7'-#3.'C%48'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
]#17'!"#$%&%$'C,1K!
@,4'1#.7%*0'!41%$4.7',*'48#'3$1,*7+
2,6#130#'48#1#'C%48'1#!"#$4'48#1#'4,'13*0#',&'3$4%6%4%#!'4834'31#'$,6#1#-
AG2S@'RA,$%#47',&'2,+",!#1!='S)48,1!'
;8#'A22'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'48#'c'!%0*%&%$3*4'$,"71%084'$3!#!'41#34#-'48#+'3!'3'()*-.#'
I8#*'48#'!)"1#+#'$,)14'$,+#!'4,'1,0#1!'$,++)*%$34%,*'6!5'
AG2S@'%4'83-'4,'-#3.'C%48'C8#48#1',1'*,4'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'#11#-'%*'$,*$.)-%*0'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'!#$4%,*'XYHZY&Z'
D2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$D'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'0#*#13..75'
;,'48#'")(.%$'+#3*%*0'-#"#*-!',*'48#'&3$4'
!
A"#$%&%$3..7'48#7'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'48#'"813!#'D'4,'48#'")(.%$D
;834'+#3*!'%4Q!'3'&%*%!8#-'%!!)#'
!
M*'48#'6#17',"#*%*0',&'48#'1#3!,*!'&,1'P)-0#+#*4'&,1'48%!'$3!#
!
S'&#34)1#',&'/,0#1!'2?@'4,')*-#1!43*-'34'48#'6#17'!4314'%!'C834'7,)'836#'%!'A22'83!'
3.1#3-7'%*'>AS'1#*-#1#-'3'_)#!4%,*',&'C8#48#1'-,C*.,3-',&'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!!)#'
%!'+,,45'
Rogers'then'deals'with'both'streaming'and'downloading'as'fundamental'issues ()4'
,*.7'(#$3)!#'%4!'0,%*0'(3$K'3*-'&%9%*0'48#',1%0%*3.'!$1#C')"'(7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-
A,'48#'(3!%$'&3$4!',&'/,0#1!'
>ASB';8#'#+"%1%$3.'%!!)#'%!'-,C*.,3-%*0'C,1K'(#%*0'6%-#,'03+#'$,*43%*%*0'
$,"71%084#-'+)!%$'C,1K!='C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4!'2?@'4,'")(.%$
/,0#1!'2?@'%!'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'&3$4)3..7='%4!'#+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*'%!'C%48'!41#3+%*05'
>+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*!B'>AS'YU,C*.,3-Z='/,0#1!'YA41#3+%*0Z'
;8#7'0,4'%4'C1,*0'C8#*'48#7'!3%-'-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
!
;8#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*
!
E)4'48#'$,"71%084'3$4'!4%..'3"".%#!'#_)3..7'4,'(,48')*-#1'4#$8W+#-%3'*#)413.%47'
!
I#'836#'4,'*,C'+,6#'48#*'%*4,'3'-%&&#1#*4'31#3',&'.3C='3'_)#!4%,*',&'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C5'
!
;8#7'31#'P,%*#-'(7')*-#1.%*%*0'$,*$#1*!'1)**%*0'481,)08'(,48',&'48#+'C%48'$,*$#1*!'
4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!'-%-'48#'$,"71%084'0#4'%4'C1,*0'34'48#',)4!#4N'S*-'48#7'-%-
;8#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'8#31-'3*'3""#3.'(#$3)!#'%4Q!'3*'3""#3.'$,)14'
!
;8#7'C#1#'8#31%*0'3""#3.'&1,+'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'3!'3'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'(,-7
!
;8%!'$3!#'-%-*Q4'!4314'34'41%3.'
!
I834'C#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%!'A22'%!'(#%*0'3!K#-'%*'48%!'3""#3.'(7'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'4,'
1#$,*!%-#1'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'Y48#'$,)14'(#.,CZ
/3-%$3..7'-%&&#1#*4'C8#*'48#7'&)*$4%,*'3!'3'+#3*!',&'2?@
!
U,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
2,"71%084'(,31-'%!'3'!434)4,17'(,-7'
M*')*-#1!43*-'48#'$3!#'8%!4,17'8#1#'%!'4834'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'31#'3""#3.%*0'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'
$,"71%084'(,31-'4,'$#14%&7';31%&&5
L*-#1!43*-'&)*-3+#*43.'#.#+#*4',&'-#$%!%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-'%!').4%+34#.7'"1,(.#+
A22'-#4#1+%*#!'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'#11#-5'
L*-#1!43*-%*0',&'*34)13.'P)!4%$#'3*-'3-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C
S-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'*,4%,*',&'&)*-3+#*43.'P)!4%$#='48#7'3443$8'4,'
_)#!4%,*!',1'"1,$#-)1#'3*-'"1,$#-)13.'&3%1*#!!5'
<,C'48%*0!',)084'4,'(#N';834'#6,K#!'48#'*,4%,*',&'&3%1*#!!
;8#7'0,4'3'431%&&'&1,+',*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1!'4,'"37'3';31%&&'4,'AG2S@'&,1'
3*7'+)!%$3.'!#16%$#'48#7'+3K#'363%.3(.#'4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'-,C*.,3-'3*-'
!41#3+%*0
!
;8#7'3""#3.'48#'$,"71%084J!'(,31-!'-#$%!%,*'4,'48#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'
a,)'836#'4,'+3K#'3*'3"".%$34%,*'&,1'.#36#'4,'3""#3.'3*-'48#'!)"1#+#'
$,)14'C%..'-#$%-#'C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4'C%..'8#31'7,)1'3""#3.
M*'4#1+!',&'C834'.#6#.',&'$,)14'7,)'3"".7'4,'
;8#7'-%!+%!!#-'48#'3"".%$34%,*='48#7'-%-'*,4'8#31'48#'3""#3.'
M4!'*,4'3'.#*0487'!#4',&'1#3!,*!'
;8#'6#17'$,*$#"4',&'P)-%$%3.'3""#3.'%4!#.&'
;8#'!43*-31-!'4834'31#'3"".%#-'
/,0#1!'#4'3.5'-,'*,4'
!
I834'C#'836#'48#*'%*'4#1+!',&'+,6%*0'7,)1'C37'%*4,'48%!'$3!#'AG2S@'.,6#-'48#'
$,"71%084'(,31-J!'-#$%!%,*5
The'standard'of'reasonableness''1.
The'standard'of'correctness2.
;8#1#'31#'V'4834'C#1#'$,*$#1*#-'%*'48%!'$3!#
!
I87'48#'!)"1#+#'$,)14'3"".7'4,'-%&&#1#*4'!43*-31-!'
!
;8#'3"".%$34%,*',&'48#!#'!43*-31-!'%*'3*-'%4'48#+!#.6#!='48#!#'!43*-31-!'836#'3'
!%0*%&%$3*4'%+"3$4',*'48#').4%+34#'-#4#1+%*34%,*'C8#48#1'!41#3+'$,*!4%4)4#!'
4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'")(.%$'
!
;834Q!'48#'$,)14'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'3""#3.#-'4,'
!
!
What'standards'did'the'federal'court'of'appeal'applied'when'it'considered'the'
appeal'by'Rogers'et'al.'Y48#'&%1!4'3""#3.Z'
;8#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".%#!'3'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'
!
/#3!,*3(.#'R#48%$3.'
!
e)*-3+#*43..7'%!'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.',&'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'#48%$3.'
!
]%!'3'6%!'$1#34,1!'1%084!',1'48#'1%084!',&'$,"71%084'8,.-#1!
!
M!'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.',&',*.%*#'!41#3+%*0'3*-'-,C*.,3-='%!'4834'3*'#48%$3.',*#
!
A)"1#+#'$,)14'3"".%#!'4,'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'
!
S'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#'%!'*,4'3'!41%$4'3!'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'H5
2,*!%-#1%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'48#'P)-0#+#*4'%*'_)#!4%,*'%!'%4'1#3!,*3(.#'%*'!)$8'3'
-#4#1+%*34%,*'48#1#'%!'48%!'#.#+#*4',&'-#&#1#*$#'4834'%!'"3%-'4,'!434)4,17'(,-7
!
;8#'%-#3'%!'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'83!'3*'#.#+#*4',&'#9"#14%!#'%!'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
%4!'8,+#'!434)4#!'
!
;8#7'31#'0,645'(,-%#!'4834'836#'!434)4,17'3)48,1%47'
!
O1,6%*$%3.'8)+3*'1%084!'$,++%!!%,*='!3+#'48%*0
!
;8#!#'31#'0,6#1*%*0'(,-%#!'4834'836#'!434)4,17'1%084!'4,'0,6#1*'+344#1!')*-#1'
48#%1')+(1#..3
!
A43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'%!'!)$8'4834'$,"71%084'(,31-'%!'%*'-#&#1#*$#'
!
The'standard'of'reasonableness
U#3.!'C%48'!41%$4'_)#!4%,*!',&'.3C'
!
2,"71%084'%!'3'$1#34)1#',&'!434)4#'
!
A434)4#!'31#'.3C'Y48#'3"".%$34%,*',&'.3CZ
!
The'standard'of'correctness
E,31-J!'-#4#1+%*34%,*',&'C834'$,*!4%4)4#!'3'D$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'")(.%$D'
)*-#1'48#'3$4'4,'(#'1#3!,*3(.#'
!
e#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".7'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'$,*$.)-#-'4834'
$,"71%084'(,31-'-#$%!%,*'C3!'%*'&3$4'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'-%!+%!!'/,0#1!'$3!#'
!
/,0#1!'3"".7'&,1'.#36#'&,1'3""#3.'3*-'!)"1#+#'$,)14'013*4!'48#'3""#3.'
!
e#-#13.'$,)14',&'3"".7'-#$.%*#'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.',*'48#'01,)*-!'4834'(3!#-',*'
4834'1#6%#C'C8#1#'(7'C#'3"".7'48#'!43*-31-'4,'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'48#1#'31#'*,4'
01,)*-!'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.5
!
;8#'$,"71%084'(,31-'C8%$8'C#'-%&&#1'4,'C8#1#'31#'*,'01,)*-!'4,'48#'3""#3.='
48#1#&,1#'C#'-%!+%!!'48#'3""#3.
!
Para'9
M4'!37!'4834'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'3"".%#-'48#'C1,*0'!43*-31-
!
M4'!8,).-J6#'3"".%#-'48#'P)-%$%3.'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'
!
;8#'$,"71%084'(,31-J!'301##+#*4'4,'$#14%&7'48#'431%&&'%!'3'!41%$4'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C'
3*-'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!'-,#!'*,4'-#&#1'4,'3'!434)4,17'(,-7
!
M4Q!'3'!41%$4'+344#1',&'.3C
!
;834Q!'48#'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!
!
L*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'-%&&#1#*$#'(WC'1#3!,*3(.#'3*-'$,11#$4*#!!'3!'3'(3!%$'
&)*-3+#*43.'$,*$#"4!'
!
A22'-#$%-#!'4,'8#31'48#'3""#3.
G*'48#'01,)*-!',&'$,11#$4*#!!'A22'413*!+%!!%,*'6%3',*.%*#'!41#3+%*0'%!'%*'&3$4'2?@'4,'
")(.%$
;8#'%!!)#'%*'48%!'$3!#'83!'(##*'310)#-'(7'48#'"314%#!'3!'3'")1#'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C5
!
;8#'C8,.#'%!!)#'C834'%!'48#'+#3*%*0',&'D4,'48#'")(.%$D'XYHZY&Z'4834Q!'C834'48#7'
31#'310)%*0
!
;8#7'31#'310)%*0'6#17'-%&&#1#*4'%*4#1"1#434%,*!',&'48#'.3C='!"#$%&%$3..7'2?@'4,'
48#'")(.%$
!
;8%!'#*4%1#'$3!#'%!'3'")1#'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C
!
The'meaning'of'3(1)(f)'that'is'a'pure'question'of'law'
!
I8%$8'%!'C87'!43*-31-',&'1#3!,*3(.#*#!!'(7'e#-#13.'2,)14',&'S""#3.'C3!'
%*$,11#$4'
!
M4'%!'*,4'3'+%9%*0',&'.3C'3*-'&3$4!'%4'%!'!41%$4.7'3'_)#!4%,*',&'.3C
!
M4'%!'%*'&3$4'!#44%*0'3'"1#$#-#-'48#'A22
!
M11#!"#$4%6#'48#'+#-%)+',1'4#$8'%*'_)#!4%,*'%4'%!'3.C37!'3'_)#!4%,*',&'&3$4='*,4'3'
+%9%*0',&'&3$4!'3*-'.3C
!
;8%!'$3!#'"1#!#*4!'3*'%!!)#'C8#1#'C#'31#'-#3.%*0'C%48'413*!+%!!%,*',&'$,"71%084'
C,1K!'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4='3*-'C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4Q!'3'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'48%!'%!'3*'
#941%$3(.#' _)#!4%,*',&'.3C5'
!
;8#1#&,1#'%4!'3.C37!'3'_)#!4%,*',&'3"".7%*0'3*-'48#'!43*-31-',&'P)-%$%3.'1#6%#C'
C%..'3.C37!'(#'3'!43*-31-',&'$,11#$4*#!!
!
Para'20
>.#+#*4',&'48#'1#3!,*!'C8%$8'#+"83!%^#!'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
!
E3$K'4,'")!8'+,-#.',&'4#$8*,.,07'
!
M*41%*!%$'"1%*$%".#'4834'A22'-#!"%4#'48#'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#+#*4'%*'>AS='48#'+3P,1%47'
,&'A22'%*'48#'"#*4,.,07'4834'"1%*$%".#',&'4#$8'*#)413.%47'%!'$#*413.'4,'-#3.%*0'C%48'
$,"71%084'3$4'3*-'%*&,'!,$%#47''
!
Para'36
/%084'4,'2?@'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'%!'3'4#$8'*#)413.'3""1,3$8'
!
Para'37
c`'7#31'8%!4,1%$3.'1#.34%,*!8%"'(WC'2?@'3*-'"#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!
!
2?@'1%084!'31#'&)*-3+#*43..7'.%*K#-'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'3$4%6%4%#!
!
48#'H[\\'3+#*-+#*4',&'48%!'.3*0)30#'-%-'*,4'!#6#1'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"
!
I8#*'C#'1#3-'$,"71%084'3$4='48#'1%084'4,'"#1&,1+'%!'!4%..'&)*-3+#*43..7'.%*K#-'4,'
1%084'4,'2?@5
!
;834'%!'!#"3134#'&1,+'1#"1,-)$4%,*'1%084!
!
;8#'*#)413.'.3*0)30#',&'48#'3$4'%4!#.&'XYHZY&Z
!
e,..,C%*0'48#'V`HV'3+#*-+#*4='(7'48#'$,"71%084'+,-#1*%^34%,*'3$4
!
G*#',&'48#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*='48#1#&,1#'$,)14!'31#'0#*#13..7'1#_)%1#-'4,'
%*4#1"1#4'$,"71%084'3$4'3$$,1-%*0'4,'48#',1%0%*3.'%*4#*4%,*',&'48#'.#0%!.34%6#' (,-7'
4834'"3!!'48#'.3C5'
!
G*.7'.#0%!.34%6#'(13*$8'.#0%!.34#!'
!
T#0%!.34%6#'
!
>9#$)4%6#
!
:)-%$%3.
!
G)4'F,645'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'48#'%-#3',&'X'.#6#.!',&'0,645
!
G(65'P)-%$%3.'%*4#1"1#434%,*',&'48#'.3*0)30#',&'.#0%!.34%,*'%!'1#_)%1#-
!
M*'%*4#1"1#4%*0'.3*0)30#',&'3'!434)4#='48#'$,)14!'31#'1#_)%1#-'4,'1#3-'48#'!434)4#'
%*'_)#!4%,*''1#!"#$4%*0'48#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*
!
M&',*.7'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'*,4'$.#31='31#'P)-0#!'3..,C#-'4,'#*030#'%*'
!)(!43*4%6#'3*-'C%-#'%*4#1"1#434%,*',&'48#'.3*0)30#'
!
M*'48%!'$3!#'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'3!'$.#31
!
M4!'%*4#*4'C3!'4,'+3K#'!#$4%,*'XYHZY&Z'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'*#)413.
!
M&'%4!'4#$8'*#)413.'48#1#'%!'3'&,1(#313*$#'8#1#'4834'%11#!"#$4%6#',&'*#C'
+#-%)+',&'4#$8'4834'31#'-#6#.,"+#*4='C8%$8'#*3(.#')!'4,'#*030#'%*'
",%*4R4,R",%*4'413*!+%!!%,*'C8#*'41%00#1#-'(7'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1='48#'
$,"71%084'3$4'3"".%#!5
!
I834'C3!'%4!'#9"1#!!#-'%*4#*4%,*
!
Para'38
O313'Xf'3*-'X\'31#'(1,3-'$,*$#"4)3.'!434#+#*4!''
A%0*%&%$3*4'.%*K'(WC'/,(#1!4,*'6!5';8,+"!,*='>AS='3*-'/,0#1!'$3!#
!
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
!
2,*$#"4',&'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
!
2,"71%084'3$4'!8,).-'D$,*4%*)#D'4,'3"".7'
!
;8#'C,1-'D4,'$,*4%*)#D'%!'3'!%0*%&%#1',&'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'4834'
$,"71%084'3$4'%!'3*-'!83..'$,*4%*)#'4,'(#'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'*#)413.'%*$.)-%*0'
+#-%3',&'+,1#'4#$8*,.,0%$3..7'3-63*$#-',*#!
!
O)!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!'3!'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*='%4'1#*-#1!'4834'
-%$8,4,+7'%*63.%-='%*,"#134%6#5
!
M*'3'!#*!#'48#'6#17'$34#0,1%#!',&'")!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!='48#'
-%!4%*$4%,*'(WC'48,!#'V'31#',*.7'63.)3(.#'3!'$34#0,1%#!
!
M*'3*',*4,.,0%$3.'Y%-#3',1'*34)1#',&'(#%*0Z'8,C'3'$34#0,17'83!'(##*'%*'3*-'
,&'%4!#.&='48%!'-%$8,4,+7'%4!#.&'%!',*.7')!#-'4,'-%&&#1#*4%34#'-%&&#1#*4'47"#!'
,&'4#$8*,.,0%#!5'
!
I8#*'7,)'C3*4'4,')*-#1!43*-'$,"71%084'3$4'3!'3'$1#34)1#',&'!434)#='3*-'
3*7'P)-%$%3.'1#6%#C',&'-#$%!%,*!'3&&#$4%*0'$,"71%084'3$4'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
#9$.)!%6#'1%084'4,'$,++)*%$34#'4,'")(.%$='48#*'4834'-%!4%*$4%,*'%!'
%11#.#63*4
!
%4'"1,4#$4!'48#'1%084!',&'3)48,1!'3*-',48#1!'
!
Robertson'vs.'Thompson'Para'49
!
;8%!'%-#3',&'&,1+
!
;8#'&,1+',&'4#$8*,.,07'%!'%+"'
!
;8#'&,1+'4834'43K#!'".3$#'8#1#'%!'streaming
!
A41#3+%*0'%!'48#'+#3*!',&'2?@'4834'".37!'#+"%1%$3..7'%*'/,0#1!
!
I834J!'48#'&,1+
!
;#$8*,.,0%$3.'*#)413.%47'%!'48#*'3'K#7',"#134%6#'4#1+'
!
D;8#'(1,3-'-#&%*%4%,*',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'C3!'3-,"4#-'"1#$%!#.7'4,'"1,6%-#'
&,1'3'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084'*,4'4,'-#"#*-#*4',*'48#'&,1+',&'4#$8*,.,075'D
!
Para'39
;8#1#'%!'3'8,.-#1',&'3'$,"71%084
!
;8#'8,.-#1',&'3'$,"71%084'%!'*,4'3.C37!'48#'$1#34,1',1'*,4'3.C37!'48#'3)48,1',&'
48#'C,1K
!
M4!'%+"'4,'1#$,0*%^#'4834'$1#34,1!'31#'3'-%!4%*$4'$34#0,17='()4'48#1#'31#'3.!,',48#1!
M4Q!'48#')*-#1.7%*0'2?@'3$4%6%47'4834'+344#1!
!
;8#7'31#'!37%*0'4,'/,0#1!'3*-'48#',48#1'3""#..3*4!='-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C834'
()!%*#!!'+,-#.'7,)'836#'$8,!#*'4,'$,*6#7'$,"71%084!='C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
!41#3+%*0'48%!'(3.3*$#'%!'*,4'!41)$K'C8#1#'48#'#9%!4#*$#',&'$,"71%084'"1,4#$4%,*'
-#"#*-!'+#1#.7',*'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.5'
!
M*'48%!'$3!#'C834'7,)'836#'%!'/,0#1!'!37'%*'#&&#$4'$,"71%084'3$4'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'
$,++)*%$34%,*'")(.%$'%4'-,#!*Q4'3"".7'8#1#'(#$3)!#',)1'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'-,#!*Q4'
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$=',)1'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'!%+".7'2?@',1'"1%634#'2?@'(WC',)1'
C#(!%4#'3*-'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1!'48#1#&,1#'$,"71%084'3$4'-,#!*Q4'3"".7'$3)!#'%4!'
*,4'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
!
;8#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%4!#.&'!8,).-*Q4'-#4#1+%*#'C8#48#1'$,"71%084'3$4'3"".%#!',1'
*,4'
!
The'underlying'CMN'activity'in'this'case'is'streaming'
;8#'*34)1#',&'4834'3$4%6%47'C834'7,)'836#'%!'*,4'3'!#1%#!',&'&39'413*!+%!!%,*',&'
!%*0.#'$,"7',&'.#03.'-#$%!%,*'Y%*'22<Z='()4'1348#1'3*'%*-%!$1%+%*3*4'3*-'%*-##-'
3.+,!4'%*&%*%4#'*,5',&'413*!+%!!%,*!'&1,+'3'C#(!%4#'4,'3*'%*&%*%4#'*,5',&')!#1!'3..'
,&'C8,+'31#'41%00#1%*0'3'!41#3+5
!
;834'1#*-#1#-'3'-#$%!%,*'&1,+'A22=',*'48#'(3!%!',&'4834'C#'836#'3'!#1%#!'
,&'413*!+%!!%,*',&'3'!%*0.#'$,"71%084#-'C,1K'4834Q!'*,4'3'2?@'4,'48#'
")(.%$
!
M4'3"".%#!'4,'48%!'$3!#='C8#*'7,)'$,*!%-#1'22<'23*3-%3*='3*-'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'
&3$4!',&'22<'23*3-%3*='%4'$,*!4%4)4#-'3'!#1%#!',&'413*!+%!!%,*='%4'C3!'3*3.7^#-'
(3!#-',*'#3$8'%*-%6%-)3.'413*!+%!!%,*
!
<,C#6#1'C8#*'7,)'(1%*0'4834'-#$%!%,*'3*-'!#4',&'&3$4!'4,'/,0#1!='%4'-,#!*Q4'8,.-'
(#$3)!#'&)*-3+#*43..7'(#$3)!#'48#'6#17'*34)1#',&'!41#3+%*0'%4!'*,4''3'"1%634#'
2?@='%*'22<'%4'C3!'3'"1%634#'2?@5'
!
Para'40
Lecture'9')Tab'6
I#-*#!-37=' @,6#+(#1' HH='V`Hc fB`['O?

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Supreme'Court'of'Canada'/SCC
!"#$%&%$'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'/,0#1!'2,++)*%$34%,*'#4'3.5'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.'%!'#941#+#.7':#1+3%*#5';8#'!%*0.#'$,"%#!'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'%*'!%*0.#'$,"7'&39%*0'
!#16%$#='%4!'34'48#'8#314',&'1,0#1!5'>!"'48#'3""#..3*4!5';8#7'1#.7',*'-#$%!%,*'%*'22<'
23*3-%3*',*'$1,!!'3""#3.5552?@'4,'48#'")(.%$
A,.#'%!!)#'%*'48%!'$3!#B'C834'%!'48#'+#3*%*0',&'D4,'48#'")(.%$D
;,')*-#1!43*-'48%!'%*'48#'$,*4#94'3*-'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#5'
E)!%*#!!'+,-#.
Para'54
F#44%*0'3'01%"',&'48#'*34)1#'3*-'$8313$4#1',&'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'
G*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#!H5
I#J1#'-#3.%*0'C%48'3'$343.,0)#',&'$,"71%084#-'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'
;8#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'-%!4%*0)%!8#-'&1,+'22<'23*3-%3*
22<'23*3-%3*'"1,6%-#-'3'!#16%$#='"314%$).31'"8,4,$,"7'!#16%$#'
L*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'(3!%!='%4!'%+"
M4!'"1#$%!#.7'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'48#'3""#..3*4!'1#.7',*'
/#"#34#-'&39',1',*#'4%+#N
;8#'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*',1'48#'"1%634#'413*!+%!!%,*'4834'7,)'83-'%*'22<'23*3-%3*5'
O1#$%!#.7'4834'!#4',&'1#3!,*!'4834'3""#..3*4!'"%$K')"'8#1#5
;8#'"1#$#-#*$#' !#4'%*'22<'23*3-%3*'C#'310)#'8#1#'4834'3"".%#!'8#1#
22<'23*3-%3*'-,#!'*,4'3!!%!4'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'
!
G)1'+)!%$'!#16%$#'481,)08'48#'%*4#1*#4'%!'48#'!3+#'48%*0'P)!4'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'
413*!+%!!%,*'48#'A)"1#+#'2,)14',&'23*3-3'-,#!*Q4'3$$#"4'48%!'310)+#*4
I#'.%6#'%*'3'!#4',&'3&&3%1!'-#&%*#-'(7'$,*!43*4'3*-'1#.#*4.#!!'%**,634%,*!'3*-'
4#$8*,.,07'
<,C'%*-%6%-)3.!')!#'3*-'#9"#1%#*$#' *#C'+#-%3'3*-'!,$%3.'+#-%3'
I#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%**,634%,*',&'8,C'$).4)1#'%4!#.&'3-,"4!'*#C'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
I#'836#'48#'%-#3',&'&,$)!%*0',*'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.
D48#'3""#..3*4!J'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#-',*'48#'#9"#$434%,*',&'+).4%".#'!3.#!'
,&'3*7'0%6#*'+)!%$3.'C,1KD
!
I8#*'7,)'+,6#'48%!'+,-#.',*.%*#'48%!'+,-#.'.#*-!'%4!#.&'4,'48#'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'
$8313$4#1'4,'48#'%*4#1*#4'%*'#R$,++#1$#
!
S*7'%*-%6%-)3.'C%48'%*4#1*#4'3$$#!!'83!'48#'",4#*4%3.',&'3$$#!!%*0'3'C#(!%4#'
!
;834'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'1#*-#1!'48#'*34)1#',&'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'%*-%!$1%+%*34#'4,'48#'
#94#*-'4834'48#',*.%*#'+)!%$'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1='83!'*,'$,*41,.',6#1'48#'4%+#',&'
3$$#!!='48#'*)+(#1',&'%*-%6%-)3.!='48#'.,$34%,*'&1,+'C8%$8'%*-%6%-)3.!',1')!#1!'
3$$#!!'48#'C#(!%4#5
!
S..',&'48%!',$$)1!'&1,+'48#'%*4#*4%,*',1'-%1#$4%,*='#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'4834'
3..,C!'3$$#!!
!
/#$,0*%4%,*'4834'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'"1#+%!#',*'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1!'3$$#!!%*0'3'
C#(!%4#
!
Triggered'by'an'individual'user'
!
;8#'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'%!'!)$8'4834'48#7'836#'3'"1%634#'
$,*6#1!34%,*'C%48'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1
!
;8#'%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'triggers
T#03.'+#3*%*0',&'41%00#1%*0'%*'48%!'$,*4#94'!"#3K!'4,'3*'%*4#*4%,*',&'3*'
%*-%6%-)3.
>*-')!#1'3$$#!!#!'C#(!%4#'-#$%-#!'4,'")1$83!#'3'413$K'6%3'-,C*.,3-='4834'%!'3'
$8,%$#',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'R#48%$!',&'%*4#*4%,*3.%47'48#1#
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'!)$8'3*',*.%*#'!#16%$#'%!'#&&#$4%6#.7'indiscriminate.'
!
U,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#1#'7,)''31#'1#$#%6%*0'
!
;8#1#'%!'3*'#*4%1#'+).4%4)-#',&'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$
!
?#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'1#$#%6#'2?@'%*'!3+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'".3$#
!
I8#48#1'48#7'1#$#%6#' 48#'-,C*.,3-'!3+#'4%+#',1'-%&&#1#*4'4%+#='%4!'
%*-%!$1%+%*34#5'
!
O1,4#$4%*0'$1#34,1!'1%084!
!
M4'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C8#48#1'+#+(#1!',&'")(.%$'31#'1#$#%6%*0'48#'2?@
!
Para'54'
Download
!
Streaming
!
V'47"#!',&'2?@'C#J1#'-#3.%*0'8#1#B
28313$4#1',&'4834'%!'4834'%4Q!'3'private'$,++)*%$34%,*'W'413*!+%!!%,*
!
M&'%4!'"1%634#'-#'&3$4,'48#1#'%!'*,4'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'6%14)#',&'4834'()!%*#!!'
+,-#.
!
S""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'48%!'%!'3'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
/,0#1!'3""#..3*4!'31#'310)%*0'4834'6#17'*34)1#',&'48#'$3!#'%!'"1%634#'$,++)*%$34%,*='
,*.%*#'!#16%$#'"1,6%-#1'3*-'%*-%6%-)3.'#*-')!#1'481,)08'%*4#1*#4'$,**#$4%,*'41%00#1!'
413*!+%!!%,*
AG2S@'310)#!'4834'48%!'%!'*,4'3'"1%634#'2?@='%*'&3$4'48%!'()!%*#!!'+,-#.'$,*!4%4)4#!'3'
2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$'
;8#'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS',&&#1')"'3'6#17'%*4#1#!4%*0'
!
:)-0#+#*4'>AS'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'X'YHZ'Y&Z
>!"'C%48'X'YHZ'Y&Z'
!
H[\\'3+#*-+#*4'XYHZY&Z'C3!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'4,'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'
!
23(.#';]'C3!'0#44%*0'3C37'C%48'*,'1,73.4%#!'#4$5'(#$3)!#',&'48#'.3*0)30#
!
E#$3)!#'6#17'(3!%!',&'13-%,'2?@'C3!'8#14^%3*'C36#!'
!
A%0*3.!'31#'$311%#-'(7'48#'C36#!'3*-'1#$#%6#-'(7'3'1#$#%6%*0'%*!41)+#*45
/3-%,',"#134#!'(7'413*!+%44%*0'13-%,'C36#!='<#14^%3*'C36#!
!
;8#'*34)1#',&'4834'4#$8*,.,07'%!'-%&&#1#*4'&1,+'$3(.#';]'4834'-#.%6#1#-' 4,'#*-'
)!#1!'(7'$,39'$3(.#!'
!
/,(#14!,*'65'48,+"!,*'$3!#'
L*-#1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'4#$8*,.,07',&'413*!+%!!%,*'%11#!"#$4%6#',&'48#'
+#-%)+'%*'#3$8',&'48#'%*!43*$#!'-,#!*Q4'+344#1'C834'48#'4#$8*,.,07'%!'(7'
C8%$8'4#$8*,.,07'%!5'
;8#'4#$8*,.,07'%*'_)#!4%,*='48#'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'3"".%#!'#_)3.'
;#$8'*#)413.%47'%!'3'"1%*$%".#='%4!'*,4'3'.3C
S'"1%*$%".#'4834'3.+,!4'83!'3'_)3!%R.#03.'!434)!'
O1%*$%".#',&'48#'4#$8*,.,0%$3.'*#)413.%47'
!
E7'0,%*0'(3$K'4,'H[[\'48#'3+#*-+#*4'4,'1#+,6#'13-%,'2?@'3*-'%*!#14'
4#.#2?@='4#.#2?@'(#$,+#!'+,1#'#*$,+"3!!%*0'4#1+
!
/3-%,'2?@'%!'3'*311,C'.3*0)30#='%4'-,#!*Q4'$3"4)1#'23(.#';]',1',48#1'
4#$8*,.,07'
!
;#.#2?@'1#$,0*%^#!'48#'1#3.%4%#!' ,&'2?@'%*-)!417='#9"3*-#-'4,',48#1'4#$8
!
M*'H[\\'+,6%*0'%*'48#'H[[`='4#$8'%**,634%,*',&',*'-#+3*-';]='"37'"#1'6%#C='
A34#..%4#' ;]5'
!
a,)'836#'3..'K%*-!',&'%**,634%,*'3*-'-#6#.,"+#*4!'%*'4#$8*,.,07'
!
M4!'48#%1')!30#='8,C'%*',48#1'C,1-!'4#$8'%!'3-,"4#-
!
;8,!#'-#6#.,"+#*4!'31#'$3"4)1#-'(7'.3*0)30#',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
!
;834'.3*0)30#'(#$,+#!'6#17'%+"
!
;8#',.-'4#$8*,.,0%#!',1'#31.%#1' (1,3-$3!4%*0'4#$8*,.,0%#!
>505'13-%,'$3(.#';]='A34#..%4#' 48,!#'31#'8%!4,1%$3..7'&,1+!',&'push'
technologies
I8#1#(7'%*'(1,3-$3!4%*0'+,-#.'48#'413*!+%!!%,*'%!'(#%*0'")!8#-'34'48#'
%*-%6%-)3.')!#1'
I834#6#1'%!'(#%*0',&&#1#-'48#'#*-')!#1!'836#'4,'3$$#"4'%4
G*'-#+3*-'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
!
>505'@#4&.%9
!
;8#'")!8'4#$8*,.,0%#!'"1#-34#'pull'technologies''
U%$8,4,+7'Y-%!4%*$4%,*Z'(WC'")!8'3*-'")..'4#$8*,.,0%#!'
/#$,0*%^#'48#'%+".%$34%,*!',&'4834'C8#*'C#'0,'(3$K'4,'48#'%-#3',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
I#'-,*Q4'836#'4#$8'*#)413.%47'%&'")..'4#$8!'31#'41#34#-'-%&&#1#*4.7'&1,+'
")!8'4#$8'C8#*'3"".7%*0'4,'(1,3-$3!4%*0'3$4'
I834'+344#1!'48#*'%!'4834'.,0%$3.'$,*4#94',&'")!8'3*-'")..'R)*4#*3(.#'
M&'7,)'!#4'48#+'3!'-%!4%*$4'3*-',"",!%4%,*3.'48#*'%4'&,..,C!'4834'$,"71%084'
3$4'3"".%#!'-%&&#1#*4.7'4,'48#+'3*-'4834Q!'3*',&&#*$#'4,'"1%*$%".#',&'4#$8'
*#)413.%47
;834Q!'48#'+,-#.'7,)'3"".7'4,')*-#1!43*-%*0'48#'1,0#1!'$3!#
The'historical'context
!
A#6#13.'6#17'%+"'3+#*-+#*4!'4,'48#'$,"71%084'3$4
M+"'&,1'4#$8'*#)413.%47'
;8#'!%0*%&%$3*4',&'4834'$83*0#'%!'!)$8'4834'C834'7,)'836#'%!'48#'
"31.%3+#*4J!'#9"1#!!%,*',&'%4!'%*4#*4%,*5'
;8#'3+#*-+#*4!'31#'#9"1#!!%,*',&'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4'
T#0%!.34%,*'48#1#&,1#'&1,+'3*'#48%$3.' "#1!"#$4%6#'3*'#9"1#!!%,*'
&)148#1+,1#',&'1#3..7'7,)1'$,-%&%$34%,*=',1'.#0%!.34%,*'#*3$4+#*4',&'")(.%$'
",.%$7
O31.%3+#*4!'3+#*-+#*4'%*'H[\\'%!'3'1#!).4',&'7#31!',&'")(.%$'-#(34#='
2?@='$,*!).434%,*='3..'(7'3'C%-#'!"#$41)+',&'%*4#1#!4'
U%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!37'4834'!%0*3.!'"31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4',&'!#"3134%*0'
1#"1,-)$4%,*'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5
!
>AS'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'!3%-B'O31.%3+#*4J!'%*4#*4%,*'4,'!#6#1',1'!#"3134#'
"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!5'I8#*'$83*0#'83""#*#-'%*'XYHZ
Y&Z
?3P,1%47',&'!)"1#+#'$,)14'%*'>AS'!3%-'"31.%3+#*4'-%-*Q4'+3K#'48#'
3+#*-+#*4'4,'!#6#1'"#1&,1+3*$#'&1,+'2?@'1%084!5'/348#1'"31.%3+#*4'
,*.7'$83*0#-'48#'+#3*!',&'413*!+%44%*0'2?@5'
/3-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'2?@'48#'+3P,1%47'%*'>AS'!3%-'4834'48#7'31#'
1#$,0*%4%,*'48#'$83*0#'%*'48#'means',&'2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$5'
?).4%4)-#',&'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'413*!+%!!%,*'$3*',$$)1'
D48#'1#".3$#+#*4',&'48#'C,1-!'D13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*D'C%48'
D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'!8,).-'(#')*-#1!4,,-'3!'+#1#.7'3!'48#'means'of'
communication' 3'C,1K'R4834'%!='&1,+'13-%,'C36#!'Y'D(7'13-%,'$,++)*%$34%,*DZ'
4,'$3(.#'3*-',48#1'&)4)1#'4#$8*,.,0%#!'YD4,'48#'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*DZ5D
!
<%!4,1%$'.%*K'(WC'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'1%084!'3*-'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
!
O#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!
2,++)*%$34%,*'1%084!'
/#"1,-)$4%,*'1%084!
;8)!'&31'C#'836#'43.K#-'3(,)4'X'$34#0,1%#!',&'1%084!'%*'48#'$,*4#94',&'48#'
"#*43.,07'$3!#!'Y(#..'23*3-3='>AS='1,0#1!'bbZ''
!
;,'$,++)*%$34#'C3!'8%!4,1%$3..7'.%*K#-'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'3$4%6%47
F,%*0'(3$K'c`'7#31!'%*',)1'.3C'
;834Q!'48#'K#7',&'>AS'%*'4#1+!',&'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'-,C*.,3-'
%!'2?@'4,'")(.%$'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'
E#$3)!#'%4'+#1#.7'"1,-)$#!'3'$,"7='%4Q!'P)!4'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*
!
S!'.,*0'3!'7,)'31#'"1,-)$%*0'3'-)13(.#'$,"7'7,)J1#'!%+".7'#*030#-'
%*'1#"1,-)$4%,*'%4'83!'*,48%*0'4,'-,'C%48'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'
")(.%$
!
a,)'$3*'836#'3'"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
a,)'$3*'836#'3'*,*R"#1+3*#*4'$,"7'd
;8#1#'%!'3'013-#='-%&&#1#*4'*34)1#',&'413*!+%!!%,*d
;8#1#'%!'481#!8,.-'$1,!!#-'C8#*'%4'(#$,+#!'-)13(.#d
I8#*'%4!'*,4'-)13(.#'7,)J1#'%*'48#'-,+3%*',&'!41#3+%*0''d
;8#1#'31#'$#143%*'-#01##!',&'-)13(.#'$,"7
!
I87'%!'3'-,C*.,3-'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4='*,4'3'$,++)*%$34%,*'4,'48#'")(.%$'
I834'%!'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084
!
D%*',)1'6%#C='(7'!)(!4%4)4%*0'48#'C,1-'D4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*D'%*'H[\\='O31.%3+#*4'
-%-'*,4'%*4#*-'4,'$83*0#'48#'&)*-3+#*43.'*34)1#',&'48#'$,++)*%$34%,*'1%084D'
!
O1%+31%.7'4,'8#31'!)(+%!!%,*!'3*-'-#4#1+%*%*0'C8#48#1',1'*,4'3'431%&&'
%*-##-'C%..'(#'$#14%&%#-
E3!%$'&)*$4%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-',&'23*3-3
!
M4'0,#!'(3$K'4,'#+#10%*0'-37!',&'>R$,++#1$#
;8#'1#$,0*%4%,*'(7'AG2S@'%*'"314%$).31'3+,*0!4',48#1!='4834'%*4#1*#4'3*-'
#R$,++#1$#'",!#-'3'!%0*%&%$3*4'4#$8'+#3*!'(7'C8%$8'AG2S@'3*-',48#1'
$,"71%084'8,.-#1!'%*'+)!%$3.'C,1K!'4,'(#'831+#-'
A,'48#7'!,)084'3'431%&&'
;8#7'C3*4#-'$,"71%084'(,31-'4,'3"".7'3'431%&&'4834'C,).-'#*3(.#'AG2S@'
4,'$,..#$4%,*'1,73.4%#!'4,'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'%*4#1*#4'
I3!'-#!%0*#-'%*'!)$8'3'C37'4834'%4'$3"4)1#-'(,48'!41#3+%*0'3*-'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'$1)$%3..7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'$,*$.)-#-'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'6%3'48#'%*4#1*#4'C#1#'indistinguishable
;8#1#&,1#'7,)'836#'V'&)*-3+#*43..7'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
;8#'%+".%$34%,*!'
M+"'4,')*-#1!43*-'48#'!8%&4'&1,+'13-%,'4,'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*5'>!"'4834'
-#(34#'(WC'48#'+3P,1%47'3*-'-%!!#*4%*0'P)-0#!'%*'>AS
<%!4,1%$3..7'2?@'1%084!'836#'3.C37!'83-'48%!'.%*K'4,'"#1&,1+3*$#'(3!#-'
3$4%6%4%#!
;8#'&3$4'4834'4834'1#.34%,*!8%"'3!'+3P,1%47'!3%-'%!'*,4'!#6#1#-'(#$,+#!'
6#17'%+"'4,')*-#1!43*-!'C8#*'7,)'$,6#1'-#$%!%,*',&'$,"71%084'(,31-
;8#7'-,'!#6#1'2?@'3*-'"#1&,1+3*$#'1%084!'C8#*'$,"71%084'(,31-'!37!'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
U,C*.,3-%*0'%!'!3+#'3!'!41#3+%*0'C8#*'%4'$,+#!'4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$
;8#1#&,1#'%4'&,..,C!'.,0%$3..7'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'6%3'%*4#1*#4'%!'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C#'836#'3'"1,(.#+'(#$3)!#'3'-,C*.,3-'"1,-)$#!'3'
$,"7='%4Q!'3'1#"1,-)$4%,*5'S'!41#3+'(7'-#&%*%4%,*'-,#!'*,4'"1,-)$4%,*'3'
-)13(.#'$,"7',48#1C%!#'%4!'*,4'3'!41#3+
M4'&,..,C!'48#1#&,1#'(7'.,0%$'4834'-,C*.,3-'3*-'!41#3+'836#'4,'(#'V'
-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'
M&'48#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'413*!+%!!%,*'48#*'$.#31.7'$,"71%084'(,31-'
#11#-'
;834'%!'48#'$,*$.)!%,*',&'A22'%*'(,48'>AS'3*-'/,0#1!'
U%-'*,4'$83..#*0#'$,"71%084'(,31-!'-#4#1+%*34%,*'4834'!41#3+'C3!'
!3+#'3!'-,C*.,3-
!
I87'(#$3)!#',&'48#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#
!
;8#'&3$4!',&'48#'$3!#'31#'6#17'!"#$%&%$
!
;8#7'C#1#'-,C*.,3-#-'C,1K!'*,4'!41#3+%*0'd
I834'C3!'(#%*0'-#3.4'C%48'>AS'C%48'48#'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
!
Therefore'ESA'did'not'deal'with'streaming'
AG2S@'3"".%#-'&,1';31%&&'VV'
!
ESA'Page'23,'para'25
;8#7'-#3.'C%48'+)!%$3.'C,1K!
]#17'!"#$%&%$'C,1K!
@,4'1#.7%*0'!41%$4.7',*'48#'3$1,*7+
2,6#130#'48#1#'C%48'1#!"#$4'48#1#'4,'13*0#',&'3$4%6%4%#!'4834'31#'$,6#1#-
AG2S@'RA,$%#47',&'2,+",!#1!='S)48,1!'
;8#'A22'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'48#'c'!%0*%&%$3*4'$,"71%084'$3!#!'41#34#-'48#+'3!'3'()*-.#'
I8#*'48#'!)"1#+#'$,)14'$,+#!'4,'1,0#1!'$,++)*%$34%,*'6!5'
AG2S@'%4'83-'4,'-#3.'C%48'C8#48#1',1'*,4'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'#11#-'%*'$,*$.)-%*0'4834'
-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'C%48'1#!"#$4'4,'!#$4%,*'XYHZY&Z'
D2?@'4,'48#'")(.%$D'(7'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*'0#*#13..75'
;,'48#'")(.%$'+#3*%*0'-#"#*-!',*'48#'&3$4'
!
A"#$%&%$3..7'48#7'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'48#'"813!#'D'4,'48#'")(.%$D
;834'+#3*!'%4Q!'3'&%*%!8#-'%!!)#'
!
M*'48#'6#17',"#*%*0',&'48#'1#3!,*!'&,1'P)-0#+#*4'&,1'48%!'$3!#
!
S'&#34)1#',&'/,0#1!'2?@'4,')*-#1!43*-'34'48#'6#17'!4314'%!'C834'7,)'836#'%!'A22'83!'
3.1#3-7'%*'>AS'1#*-#1#-'3'_)#!4%,*',&'C8#48#1'-,C*.,3-',&'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!!)#'
%!'+,,45'
Rogers'then'deals'with'both'streaming'and'downloading'as'fundamental'issues ()4'
,*.7'(#$3)!#'%4!'0,%*0'(3$K'3*-'&%9%*0'48#',1%0%*3.'!$1#C')"'(7'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-
A,'48#'(3!%$'&3$4!',&'/,0#1!'
>ASB';8#'#+"%1%$3.'%!!)#'%!'-,C*.,3-%*0'C,1K'(#%*0'6%-#,'03+#'$,*43%*%*0'
$,"71%084#-'+)!%$'C,1K!='C8#48#1',1'*,4'%4!'2?@'4,'")(.%$
/,0#1!'2?@'%!'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'&3$4)3..7='%4!'#+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*'%!'C%48'!41#3+%*05'
>+"%1%$3.'$,*$#1*!B'>AS'YU,C*.,3-Z='/,0#1!'YA41#3+%*0Z'
;8#7'0,4'%4'C1,*0'C8#*'48#7'!3%-'-,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'C#1#'
%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
!
;8#7'31#'-%&&#1#*4'+#3*!',&'4#.#$,++)*%$34%,*
!
E)4'48#'$,"71%084'3$4'!4%..'3"".%#!'#_)3..7'4,'(,48')*-#1'4#$8W+#-%3'*#)413.%47'
!
I#'836#'4,'*,C'+,6#'48#*'%*4,'3'-%&&#1#*4'31#3',&'.3C='3'_)#!4%,*',&'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'.3C5'
!
;8#7'31#'P,%*#-'(7')*-#1.%*%*0'$,*$#1*!'1)**%*0'481,)08'(,48',&'48#+'C%48'$,*$#1*!'
4,'2?@'4,'")(.%$='4834'%!'-%-'48#'$,"71%084'0#4'%4'C1,*0'34'48#',)4!#4N'S*-'48#7'-%-
;8#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'8#31-'3*'3""#3.'(#$3)!#'%4Q!'3*'3""#3.'$,)14'
!
;8#7'C#1#'8#31%*0'3""#3.'&1,+'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'$,"71%084'(,31-'3!'3'
3-+%*%!4134%6#'(,-7
!
;8%!'$3!#'-%-*Q4'!4314'34'41%3.'
!
I834'C#'31#'$,*$#1*#-'C%48'%!'A22'%!'(#%*0'3!K#-'%*'48%!'3""#3.'(7'/,0#1!'#4'3.5'4,'
1#$,*!%-#1'48#'-#$%!%,*',&'48#'&#-#13.'$,)14',&'3""#3.'Y48#'$,)14'(#.,CZ
/3-%$3..7'-%&&#1#*4'C8#*'48#7'&)*$4%,*'3!'3'+#3*!',&'2?@
!
U,C*.,3-%*0'3*-'!41#3+%*0'31#'%*-%!4%*0)%!83(.#'
2,"71%084'(,31-'%!'3'!434)4,17'(,-7'
M*')*-#1!43*-'48#'$3!#'8%!4,17'8#1#'%!'4834'/,0#