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Lecture 3

CMN 4131 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Forego, Brainstorming, Intentionality


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN 4131
Professor
Stephanie Larrue
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3
Negotiation
What is negotiation?
!Characteristics
o!Voluntary engagement
o! Reciprocal and equal participation
o! Verbal and interactive
o! Reasoning techniques to persuade
o! Offers and responses
o! Seeking solutions
!What is Negotiation?
o!We all do it when we bargain.
o!How do you bargain?
What is Positional Bargaining?
! It’s about starting with an extreme position and holding on to it as
much as possible while yielding as little as possible until the
discussion reaches an agreement. The other party does the same.
!Positional Bargaining
o! Beware of locking yourself into a position: by clarifying your
position, you become more committed to it. Your ego
becomes identified with it and it becomes about saving face.
o! The more the discussions are about the positions, the less
they are about underlying issues and concerns.
o! arguing over positions produces unwise agreements
o!Interests: desires, fears, hopes, concerns, values
!Disadvantages
o!there is a lot of stalling (inefficiency)
o! the relationship can be hurt (contest of wills)
o! substance and people can be entangled together
o! negotiations can break off and not resume
o! reduces creativity
o! diminishes cooperation
o! limits quality of communication
o! culturally biased
o!Often not sustainable in the long run can create more win-
lose or lose-lose situation

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Soft bargain vs. hard bargain
!Soft bargain
o!1. Participants are friends
o!2. The goal is agreement
o!3. Make concessions to cultivate the relationship
o! 4. Be soft on the people and the problem
o! 5. Trust others
o! 6. Change your position easily
o! 7. Make offers
o! 8. Disclose your bottom line
o! 9. Accept one-sided losses to reach agreement
o! 10. Search for the single answer: the one they will accept
o! 11. Insist on agreement
o! 12. Try to avoid a contest of will
o! 13. Yield to pressure
!Hard bargain
o!1. Participants are adversaries
o!2. The goal is victory
o!3. Demand concessions as a condition of the relationship
o!4.Be hard on the problem and the people
o!5. Distrust others
o!6. Dig in to your position
o!7. Make threats
o!8. Mislead as to your bottom line
o!9. Demand one-sided gains as the price of agreement
o!10. Search for the single answer: the one you will accept
o!11. Insist on your position
o!12. Try to win a contest of will
o!13. Apply pressure
What is the Alternative?
!Principled Negotiations (Fisher & Ury)
!Interest-Based Bargaining (Carrell & Heavrin)
Negotiations are based on:
!Identity
! Shapes:
o! Values
! Expressed through:
o! Interests
! Which inform:
o! Positions
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!When you’re stuck in the positions, try to find the interests behind,
then try to find who the person is and what are their values. This is
principle based negotiation.
Principled Negotiation Process
!People: separating the people from the problem
o!The person is not a problem, the problem is the problem.
! Interests: concentrating on interests rather than positions
! Options: a variety of possibilities before deciding
! Criteria: the result should be based on an objective standard
o!objective criteria is not as much as it was.
o!The majority find objective criteria fair.
o!“Standard” is not always fair.
o!There’s always subjectivity in the criteria, its not always
objective.
Interest-Based Bargaining
!1. Sharing of information
!2. Willingness to forego power or leverage
!3. Brainstorming to create options
!4. Focusing on issues, not personalities
!5. Leave past issues behind
!6. Expressing interests, not positions
!7. Both parties committing to IBB
What is Principled Negotiation?
!Participants are problem-solvers
! The goal is a wise outcome reached efficiently and amicably
! Separate the people from the problem
! Be soft on the people, hard on the problem
! Proceed independent of trust
! Focus on interests, not positions
! Explore interests
! Avoid having a bottom line
! Invent options for mutual gain
! Develop options to choose from, decide later
! Insist on using objective criteria
! Try to reach a result based on standards independent of will
! Reason and be open to reason; yield to principle, not pressure
Separate the People from the Process
!Every negotiation has 2 kinds of interests:
o! 1. substance (content)
!!e.g. what they’re fighting about
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