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Lecture 4

CMN 4131 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: The Negotiation, Best Alternative To A Negotiated Agreement, Nonverbal Communication


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMN 4131
Professor
Stephanie Larrue
Lecture
4

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Lecture 4
Group project
!Use the 3 models to do role-play
!Use ppt.
!Theories needed
!Each group has to choose one of the models
Advantages of Interest-Based Negotiations
!Improved communication because not focused on positions
! Joint brainstorming of ideas will be more creative
! Defensiveness will break down easily
! Easy to understand the “why” behind the interests
Disadvantages of Interest-Based Negotiations
!Takes time to discuss interests and options when a mutual
agreement could be quickly found
! Difficult to apply an option into a realistic solution
! Standards of measurement proposed may be subjective and both
parties may not agree
o!objective criteria: its always subjective, its never really
objective
Integrative Bargaining vs. Distributive Bargaining
!Distributive Bargaining
o! Example of the meal (not enough for 8 people):
o! divide up in equal parts for everyone or according to another
form of rationale.
o! = “zero sum game” because a gain for one party = loss for
the other
o! = a loss for another = win-lose
o! Fixed sum game
o!one fixed resource, so just split it
o!lose-lose situation
o!its unfair for everybody, everybody loses, everybody is
unhappy
o!but if you open up your horizons there are other things !
integrative bargaining
! Integrative Bargaining
o!Use other resources (external or unconventional) to reach an
agreement that is more equitable
o! The negotiator decides which way he will treat the problem:
through distributive or integrative bargaining.

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o! Win-win
o! Focus on common interests and opportunities for joint gain
(interest-based)
o! Maximize everyone’s satisfaction
o! Successful relationship building
o! Solid communication
o! Problem-solving orientation
o! Framing the issue as a joint matter
o! Harnessing creativity
o! Forming of genuine partnerships among problem-solvers
Integrative Bargaining Five Step Process (Slone and Chicano)
!Step 1. Exchange info and identify all issues. Each side explains
concerns and issues.
! Step 2. Develop a common list of isues, classify as compatible,
exchange (equal value), distributive (not compatible, value must be
distributed equally)
! Step 3. Reach final agreement on compatible issues and remove
! Step 4. Trade or exchange issues of approximate value (or group
some in the exchange)
! Step 5. Resolve remaining issues, through distributive bargaining,
issue by issue
Integrative Bargaining vs. Distributive Bargaining
!FACTOR
o! Number of issues
o! Technique
o! General strategy
o! Relationship
o! Interests
o! Options
o! Information
!DISTRIBUTIVE
o! One/one at a time
o! Win/lose
o! Max. share fixed pie
o! 1 time only
o! Interests hidden
o! 1 position/issue
o! Information hidden
!INTEGRATIVE
o! Several
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o! Win/win
o! Expand the pie
o! Continuing
o! Share with others
o! Many options
o! Share information, Why
!Conflict Frames (Party Interests)
o!Relationship/task frame
o! Emotional/intellectual frame
o! Cooperate/win frame
Limitations of Integrative Bargaining
!Difficult to recognize compatibility and exchange issues properly to
maximize gains for each side
! Balance of power may affect quality of final outcome for one party
(limiting mutual gains)
! Overconfidence on trade-off’s (assumptions about other) affect
quality of listening and of negotiations
Motivation
!“Motivation affects both information processing and the strategies
one employs in a negotiation”:
o!Social motivation: either selfish or prosocial
o!Epistemic motivation: effort used to process information
relevant to the negotiation (being aware: knowing, thinking,
learning, judging to avoid errors) – epistemology (= theory of
knowledge)
o!Impression motivation: the desire to make a good impression
and get along
The Negotiation Process
1.!Preparation: getting ready
2.! Introduction: setting the tone
3.! Issues: determining what to solve
4.! Interests: what is important
5.! Solutions: reaching agreement
6.! Implementation: putting agreements into practice
The Negotiation Process – Preparation: Getting Ready
!Research and gather information
! Think about cultural differences
! Consider your values and anticipate the other’s approach without
assuming (interests, issues, proposed outcome, concerns)
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