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Chapter 2: Classical Approaches Notes from the textbook combined with lecture notes on the chapter.

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Rumaisa Shaukat

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CHAPTER 2: CLASSICAL APPROACHES The Machine Metaphor All theories during the industrial revol’n had one thing in common – the belief that organizations should be modeled after machines Learn something about organizations by considering object that an organization “is like” (ex. an organization is like a pizza”; must have all ingredients) Organizations like machines cuz of the principles of specialization, standardization, replaceability, and predictability Specialization: division of labor Ex. every part of an engine has specific function Standardization (replaceability): parts in one machine similar to another machine; therefore easily replaced Predictable: machine breaks – rationally think through the prob, should be able to fix it Theory of Classical Management (Henri Fayol) Fayol: “father of operational management theory” Elements of management: what managers should do 5 elements: 1. Planning : best way to attain organizational goals 2. Organizing: arrangement of human resources and evaluation of those employees 3. Command: set tasks for employees in order to meet organizational goals 4. Coordination: separate activities into a whole 5. Control: comparison btw goals and activities Technical skills: basic understanding of what you’re to do (position, but your job is) Deal with responsibility and role recognition Ppl skills: ability to work with ppl who are diff than you Conceptual skills: enough creativity and analytical skills to make good decisions for the future Principles of management: how managers should enact these elements 6 principles: 1. Scalar chain (hierarchy of organization) 2. Unity of command (employee receives orders) 3. Unity of direction (similar goals under single supervisor) 4. Division of labor (employees assigned to limited # of specialized tasks) 5. Order: appointed place for each employee and task 6. Span of control: managers most effective if control of limited # of employees Principles of Organizational POWER: Centralization: central management control over decision making and employee activities Authority and responsibility: managers should hold authority that derives from position AND personal characteristics Discipline: members obedient to rules and managers who enforce them Principles of Organizational REWARD: Remuneration of personnel: employees should be rewarded with appropriate salaries and benefits Equity: in remuneration, employees should be treated justly Tenure stability: guarantee sufficient time to achieve max performance Principles of Organizational ATTITUDE: Subordination of individ interest to general interest: effective when interests of whole take precedence over interests of individs Initiative: manager’s should direct employee’s efforts in best interest of the organization
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