CMN 1148:Lecture 3 Sept 26 2011h
Txtbook: Chapter 5
Prescriptive View of Culture:
Deal and Kennedy’s “Strong Cultures”
Assumptions: Business success can be enhanced through the development of a strong culture
D&K identified 4 components of a strong culture:
Values: are the beliefs and visions that members hold for an organization.
Heroes: are the individuals who come to exemplify an organizations values. These heroes become
known through the stories and myths of an organization.
Rites and rituals: are the ceremonies through which an organization celebrates its values. For example
a company picnic or an awards banquet.
Cultural Network: is the communications system through which cultural values are instituted and
Peters and Waterman’s “Excellent cultures”
a bias for action : excellent organizations react quickly and do not spend time planning and analyzing
close relations to the customer : excellent organizations gear decisions and actions to the needs of
autonomy and entrepreneurship : excellent organizations encourage employees to take risks in the
development of new ideas.
productivity though people: excellent organizations encourage positive and respectful relationships among
management and employees
handson, value driven: excellent organizations have employees and managers who share the same core
value of productivity and performance.
stick to the knitting : excellent organizations stay focused on what they do best and avoid radical
simple forms, lean staff: excellent organizations avoid complex structures and divisions of labour.
simultaneous loosetight properties: excellent organization exhibit both unity or purpose and diversity
necessary for innovation.
Alternative approaches to culture:
Organizational Cultures are Complicated:
Values, beliefs, metaphors, stories, communication rules, hallway talk
Organizational cultures are Emergent: Cultures are socially created. Cultural performances are interactional in that they require the participation of
the multiple organizational members.
Organizational Cultures are not Unitary:
It is impossible to characterize an organization as having a single culture. Rather, most scholars agree that
organizations are characterized by a multitude of subcultures.
Organizational Cultures are often Ambiguous:
There is not always a clear picture of the organizations culture or even its subcultures This approach
discusses that culture is fragmented.
Scheins Model of culture the onion model:
According to Shein, Culture is…
“ a pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external
adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be
taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to those problems.”
Schein is a management scholar and consultant interested in the role of leaders in the development and