CMN 1148: Lecture 2 Sept 19 th
Txt: Chap 3
Humans Relations and Human Resources Approaches:
The human relations approach [family metaphor]:
The Hawthorn Studies, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs , McGregor’s Theory X and Y
The Hawthorn Studies:
a series or research investigations in the late 1920s and early 1930s that served as a springboard to the
human relations movement.
Studies included 4 phases: the illumination studies, the relay assembly test room studies, the interview
program, and the bank wiring room studies.
Hawthorn effect the influence of mere attention on changes in behavior. This helped to bring attention to
social factors, management style, satisfaction of human needs, that influence performance.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory:
McGregor’s Theory X and Y:
Managers can have different kinds of assumptions about workers that will influence managerial behavior.
Communication in Human Relations Approaches:
Content of communication task and social
Direction of communication flow vertical and horizontal
Channel of communication often FTF Style of communicationinformal
The Human Resources Approach:
Combines aspects of classical and human relations approaches
ORG.WORK+IND.FEELINGS= HUMAN RESOURCES APPROACH
Emphasis on cognitive processes
Content of Communication task, social, innovation (how you can find a balance within employees and
Direction of Communication Flow all directions, team based
Channel of Communication all channels
Style of communicationformal and informal
Founding Human Resources Theories:
Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid:
Country Club management
Middle –ofthe road Management
Likert’s System IV:
Exploitive Authoritative: is characterized by motivation through threats and fear, downward and inaccurate
communication, toplevel decision making, the giving of orders and toplevel control.
Blake and Moutons Managerial Grid:
Impoverished Management: high concern on productivity and low concern for people.
Country club management: high concern for people, low concern for productivity.
Middle of the road management: balanced concern for people and productivity.
AuthorityCompliance Management: high concern for productivity and low concern for people.
Team Management: can create more of an interdependent relationship work environment . focus on how
two parties can come together based on common goals
Likert’s System IV: Exploitive Authoritative: highly centralized communications [vertical], productivity is very low, managers
control everything, people don’t feel satisfied, worst organization structure,
Benevolent Authoritative: decision making is centralized, motivation is done through ego boosting
Consultative Organization: involve all employees on all levels before making decisions, decentralized
managers would not do decisions by themselves
Participative Organization: collision working environments, informal communication, employees can ask
questions from certain program offices o