Machine metaphor; The guiding metaphor for classical approaches. Proponents of this
metaphor argue that organizations are like machines because of the principles of
specialization, standardization, replaceability (replace the person very easily), and
predictability (how to predicted how machines operate, predicted what kind of goals you
have for them, and if they are not doing their job, it will affect others around them).
People work together to be successful, we cannot expect people to follow each rule, they
need to have an opinion and say as well. Machine Metaphor works better in an open
The theory of Classical Management (Fayol)
The Theory of Bureaucracy (Weber)
The Theory of Scientific Management (Taylor)
“ One size fits all” way doe not work well in all workplaces. The manager has to
use different strategies and techniques with different places and people.
Fayol’s Theory: theory of classical management
Fayol is considered to be the father of operational management theory. The core
of his work helps to divide organizations into functional units via;
• 5 elements of management (what managers should do)
• 6 principles of management (how managers should apply these elements)
• Principles of organizational; Power, Rewards, Attitude.
Three skills that managers have;
Technical what your job does (ex; if you are a tech guy, you know very well the
software for the computer)
Human; good people skills, good relationship with your employees, good social
Conceptual; enough creativity to know what will happen in the future.
• Vertical Authority Hierarchy; People at the top have more impute than any other
people. (Vertical; top to bottom)
• Unity of Demand; One person should have tasks that fit them and what they do
best. Also they should have one supervisor. Too many supervisors are a lost cause
and will make employees confused with whom to take instructions from. • Unity of Direction; Tasks having similar goals should be placed under one