CMN 2148: Lecture #4 Sept 26 2012
Object of the lecture: brain growing thing that you put it In water.
Direct quote (name)
Paraphrase ▯ this is the emphasis, focus on this.
Our words: in other words, means,
Link to example: quick overview of text (do not retell example)
According to …………, make reference to the authors, cases, lectures.
Direct quote Paraphrase
Why the brain as a metaphor?
Most organizations are based on a system of instrumental rationality (people and jobs fit together in a
Behavior in which the means and the ends of actions are rationally related to each other
Your action in coming to the university is instrumentalrational if you see it as a logical means to achieve an
“end”, that is a degree and hopefully, a good job or career.
The brain is a system of substantial rationality (able to determine whether what it is doing is appropriate and
adjust tit actions accordingly
It is this selfreflexivity and self regulation that suggests it could be an ideal metaphor.
You make adjustments as you go through university to achieve your goal, or even to change it..
Theses adjustments are called self regulation
the ability to formulate a goal, monitor goal process, adjust ones behaviors or adjusting the goal.
Start▯ goal (set points)
▯Goal ▯ Under Changing circumstances , people would question the appropriateness of their actions and modify
their behavior to take into account new situations.
Self aware and adaptive
not meant to be a brain like function (ex: think tanks, corporate planning teams)
rather , the whole organization as a brain.
Information processing center
Taking in and processing information
Cybernetics is the study of communication and control
Cybernetics is interdisciplinary in nature; based on common relationships between humans and machines
"This new development has unbounded possibilities for good and for evil." Norbert
Wiener, Cybernetics, 1948
was meant for connecting with other moving targets ex: plane
Cybernetics: Negative Feedback:
The ability of system to self regulate depends on information exchange processes called negative feedback
Negative feedback reverses the direction of change to maintain homeostasis
(ex: body temperature, standing, upright, maintain car’s speed of direction, riding a bike.
A signal for the up or down regulation of a pocess in order to return a system to some specified set point . Negative feedback keeps the system on track ( it is also called corrective feedback)
Theo Jansen lifelike creatures out of plastic tubes and lemonade bottles. Creatures are designed to move
even survive on thei