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Lecture 18

CMN2160 Lecture 18: Filters and the Propaganda Model (Critical PE Part 2)

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Patrick Mc Curdy

Filters - Critical Political Economy Part 2 CMN2160 C Objectives • Propaganda Model and its 5 Filters and critiques Propaganda Model (1988) • Argues; News structure is determined by 5 filters which organize news o Agenda setting media are major corporations or larger conglomerates, with a market of a privileged audience, who sell said audience to other corporations • Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of Mass Media – Herman & Chomsky • Edward S. Herman (b. 1925) o Professor Emeritus of Finance, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania o Critiques gatekeeping perspectives in news and decision makers o Argues provides insight, but focuses too much on personnel and their autonomy as news makers and ignores the source interplay and power relations • Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) o Institute Professor & Professor of Linguistics, MIT (Emeritus) o Propaganda Model’s 3 Validating Parts (making it well confirmed) ▪ 1) Prior Plausibility ▪ 2) Elite Advocacy ▪ 3) General Support of the Public The Filters 1. Ownership a. Creating arguments about startup costs (not just anyone can own a media company, it costs a lot to be a player) i. How does the pressure of stockholders influence content b. Characterizes political economy c. Corporations skew news in their favour, and present content in a bias manner d. Revolving door of board members who work for the government or media corporations 2. Advertising; buy and pay for the programs on television a. Shows bring our attention to the screen so that they can show advertisement b. TV executives tend to choose more conservative programs, to avoid serious, complex, or disturbing controversies or content that could sway the buying movement, however, this is the democratic role c. TV Stations depend on advertising dollars, and don’t want to loose advertisers, so content gets toned down and encourages self- censorship which translates to conservative reporting d. Increase of tabloids (click-bait attention), drama = watching = opportunity to sell 3. Sourcing; economic necessity of a symbiotic relationships a. Reciprocity of interest, reporters need sources, and gov’t officials need their ideas published/recorded b. Influences what is reported, news companies rely on government PR c. “Moral Division of Labor,” officials give facts, and reporters get to report the facts. Journalists must adopt uncritical attitude that makes it possible to accept corporate values without cognitive dissonance d. Government envision promoters make journalism very easy i. Provide media organizations with facilities and access to info (ex. Advanced copies of speeches, press releases) ii. Scheduling for press conferences are well
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