Intercultural communication: Books Notes
• Intercultural competence: ideal which Canadians should strive for. Ability to communicate effectively
with people belonging to culture groups different to our own.
• Pluralistic: pluralistic society is one which a verity of cultural, religion, ethnic and linguistic groups co
• Visible minority: non white Canadians and acknowledges the role of race in the social construction of
• Ethnic group: collectively within a larger society united by emotional and cultural ties.
• Colonial: domination by European Canadian institutions and policies began
• 73% of Canadians say that immigrants are good.
• Marshall mcluhan: global village. He said that the world would become a global village. After ww2 this
started to happen.
• Geert Hofstede: common forms of intercultural encounters:
• International development cooperation
• Cultural convergence: one world culture
• Cultural fragmentation: disintegration of “singular” cultures and the formation of numerous diverse
• Dominant culture: culture of power in a society
• sub culture: minority culture in a society
• cultural nationalism: to seek nation state status or autonomy or equality within a nation state. (also
referred to ethnonationlism)
• nation states: political units to which the world is currently divided into to.
• Culture genocide: suppress or annihilate another ethnic group through outright murder.
• Ethnic cleansing: removal of an ethnic groups from an area claimed by another. • Postmodernism: recent changes in western culture.
• Perception; the process by which we select and organize the barrage of sensory stimuli that bombard
us every moment of every day.
• Ethnocentrism: two part assumption:
• That our culture is better than others
• Other cultures want to be like our culture
• Eurocentrism: belief that European cultures are superior to non European cultures (usually western)
• Cultural appropriation: taking over of aspects of another groups cultural identity as if they are ones own.
• Stereotyping: fixed and over generalized notion of a person or group of people
• Prejudice: pre judging in a negative perception of others without regard for facts of information.
• Racism: belief (unsubstained by science) that races are superior to others n terms of intelligence of
inherent moral character.
• Discrimination: negative treatment based on racism or prejudice.
• Racial profiling: form of discrimination from people in elevators (law enforcement, etc.) take race into
account in reacting to or dealing with visible minorities.
• Bigotry: general term that describes ignorance, prejudice regarding opinions and beliefs practices of
• Cultural patterns: foundation of intercultural competence is knowledge about our own and others
• Cultural relativism: lens that counterbalances the instinct towards ethnocentrism.
• Culture; set of learned patterns of thought and behavior shared and passed down by a group of people.
Consist of traditions, beliefs, values and norms and symbols.
• Hofstede: calls culture: the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one
group or category from another. • Cultural models: (nancy bonvillian) construction of reality that is created, shared, and transmitted by
members of a group.
• Cultures components:
o Food customs
o Naming customs; (ex arabs boys are given three names)
Birth an childhood rituals
Funerals and mourning
• Cultural narratives: myths legends and folktales
• Universal symbols: example tree of life
• Number and Color symbolism: different colors and numbers have different meanings in different
cultures. Example; number 4 is considered unlucky in japan and Chinese culture, because it is a
homonym for death.
• Taboos: prohibitions of behaviors. Sex is the base of many taboos.
• Patriarchies: men have more political power and social prestige than women.
• Matriarchy: power behind the throne. Women have power but there is no true evidence of it.
• Culture realms: regions where different cultural groups share a number of cultural patterns.
Chapter 4: exploring north American values and beliefs; Canada and the
• Evangelical: spread the gospel • Rule of law: value the individual and the value of work
• Individualism: freedom of religion and separation of the church and state were guaranteed
early in the US
• Individual Freedom: basis of American values
• Materialism: marriage between individualism and materialism also underlies American value
• Equality: Americans hold firmly to their belied in equality and to its sidekick, the American
dream (concept related to freedom and equality of opportunity)
• Competition: winning, excelling and being number one are highly values in American culture.
• Science of technology: Americans belief that science and technology and can solve all
problems of life and lead humans towards ideal existence
• Empirical: scientific thought as superior to intuition and emotion.
• Protestant work ethic: Americans value hard work and its perceived material and moral
• The melting pot: Americanizing; immigrants and assimilating them into American dominant
• Most significant difference between Canada and united states is our antirevolutionary
• Civil liberties: peace, order and good government. Charter of rights
• Individualism tempered by collectivism: Canadians tend to be more collective and farther left
• Canadians tend to respect institutions, follow rules and value order.
• Canadians and Americans: values divergence or convergence: Canadians value divergence,
identity based on confidence about the unique experiment we have built north of the 49
parallel. We no longer have to be anti American to be Canadian even though we share basic
and historic enlightenment values with our neighbors. Chapter 57
Chapter 5: Cultures in Comparison
All three were b