lecture

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Department
Conflict Studies and Human Rights
Course
ECH2330
Professor
Christoph Zuercher
Semester
Winter

Description
January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities 3 Most Important Trends in Warfare Since 1945 1. Decline in interstate war (80-90% caused by Civil War) 2. More Non State actors 3. # of international wars is stable When does a war start and how? Difference between a war and a riot? You need to understand how to be able to explain. [definitions and measurements) How many people die in a war? It’s arbitrary…but definitions need to be made. Conflict Conflict is a process, in which two or more parties attempt to pursue their interests, which are perceived as mutually incompatible, by directly or indirectly seeking to reduce the other party’s capacity to achieve its goals. Conflict is thus competition over resources and symbols, conducted in the framework of institutionalized procedures. Conflict is therefore the normal state of affairs in society. All societies have institutions and procedures for dealing with conflict. These allow to ...process” conflicts. January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities Conflict is highly organized (training, equipment, soldiers, etc.) Think of yourself as a follower – what factors would cause you to pick up the gun? - Fear? - Window for opportunity? (now or never) - Reward? - Or are you just crazy? Sociology of Conflict: Bartos et.al January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities Conflict creates Hate. Rational for prolonging conflict can be just wanting to express Hostility. Sociology of Conflict: Bartos et.al 1. Conflict is normal. Conflict is a given in every society, in almost every situation. All societies have institutions and procedures for dealing with conflict. These allow to …process” conflicts 2. Conflict is also not always dysfunctional. It serves many social functions, among them: a. Group boundaries and identities b. Innovation c. Social Cohesion 3. What we are concerned with is hence not conflict perse, but conflict that spins out of its socially constructed boundaries, conflict that becomes dis-embedded, conflict that becomes de-institutionalized, and hence conflict that may turn violent. (conflict alone isn’t bad, it’s a given) Types of Conflict 1. Realistic Conflict - fighting about something tangible (Resources, values) January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities 2. Unrealistic Conflict - conflict solely to express hostility 1. Either-or-Conflict - “This village is a ___ villiage, and will stay that way” 2. More-or-Less Conflict - “I need x amount of water” ,easier to solve 1. Resource Conflict - Task is easier, because resources can be substituted for. (waterbuild a damn, landother land available 2. Value Conflict/Normative Conflict - Task is harder Conflicts over values are as “rational” as conflicts over resources. • We assume violent iis irrational • There is an element of rationality in organized violence, because otherwise, the War Lord wouldn’t survive • It is misleading to think one type of conflict is rational while another type is irrational • …just because you don’t understand – doesn’t mean its irrational, it’s just a different objective • As soon as you mark one conflict as irrational, you are losing the ability to deal with it. Pay Off Matrix Helps to: • Identify incompatibility • Identify extent of incompatibility • Explore alternative • Find best agreement As a peace builder trying to understand conflict, you need to understand who is involved and the 4 above bullet points. January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities Example of a Pay off Matrix Husband and wife’s 2 options about having children. Wife- payoff for 4 children = -10 (she doesn’t want 4 children; pay off for 0 children is 8 (she doesn’t want children) Husband- payoff for 4 children is 10 (he wants 4 children); payoff for no children is -8 (he doesn’t want to have no children) *peacekeepers try to find the best solution; which is crucial in order to understand conflict  Important to both workers & managers January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities Relative Deprivation Example: one groups gets a raise of 10%, the other group gets a raise of 20%...they are both technically better off than they were before, however the group that only gets a 10% raise will find it unfair that the other group gets a higher raise. Illegitimate Power People in charge…you view them as illegitimate Absolute Power Absolute terms- one group has more than another group Belligerent Culture or Personality One group wants more – strives to take more. Difference in Size & Technology 21 century vs. Middle ages. January 8 2014 Definitions/Functions/Types of conflict, pay off matrix & Pathways to incompatibilities DEFINITIONS TO KNOW Armed Conflict: (State-based) An armed conflict is a contested incompatibility that concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed forced between two parties, of which at let one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths in one calendar year. Battle-Related Deaths: (State-based, non-state) Counted as battle-related deaths is the use of armed force between warring parties in a conflict dyad, be it state-based or non-state, resulting in deaths. Comment Typically, battle-related deaths occur in what can be described as “normal” warfare involving the armed forces of the warring parties. This includes traditional battlefield fighting, guerrilla activities (ex: hit and run attacks/ambushes) and all kinds of bombardments of military units, cities and villages, etc. The targets are usually the military itself and its instillations, or state institutions and state representatives, but there is often substantial collateral damage in the form of civilians killed in crossfire, indiscriminate bombings etc. All deaths – military as well as civilian – incurred in such situations, are counted as battle-related deaths. The general rule for counting battle-related deaths is moderation. All battle-related deaths are based on each coder’s analysis of the particular conflict. Each battle-related death has to be verified in one way or another. All figures are disaggregated as much as possible. All figures that are not trustworthy are disregarded as much as possible in the coding process. Sometimes there are situations when there is a lack of information on disaggregated battle-related deaths. When this occurs, the coder may rely on sources that provide already calculated figures either for some particular incidents, or for total number of deaths in the conflict. The UCDP incorporates such death figures for particular incidents and for an entire armed conflict if they are coherent with the definition. If they are not, or if t
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