Class Notes (837,435)
Canada (510,273)
Criminology (2,472)
CRM1300 (408)
Sam Alvaro (78)
Lecture

Lecture 4: Violent Crime

5 Pages
69 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Criminology
Course
CRM1300
Professor
Sam Alvaro
Semester
Fall

Description
Violent Crime Roots of Violence  Personal traits o Brain injuries, mental illness, abnormal brain wave patterns, low intelligence, psychotic symptoms, etc o A lot is unknown about brain (we don’t really know what effect certain things will have)  Family dysfunction o Family violence, physical and sexual abuse, physical punishment, inconsistent discipline o Family violence: being victim or witness to violence can get us to recreate thos epatterns (as victims and perpetrators)  Drugs o Alcohol increases aggression o Trafficking creates disputes  Underground economies regulated through violence o Addiction creates need for money  ---> robbery  Firearms availability o Explains US-Canada differences  In Canada, 14 000 gun-related deaths over 10 years  Mainly suicides (81%) and accidents Sexual Assault Historical Masculinity Related Issues  Women were viewed as property of men, until about 1920s  Rape was an offence against the father or husband, not against female (damaged goods) Rape diminished the value of wife or daughter  Rape and the Military  Canadian and American military o 1970s: women enter military o Complaints of sexual assault in 1990s  Rape has long been associated with warfare  Women were considered to be the spoils of war o Vietnam, Bosnia, Africa  Rape used as ethnic cleansing Incidence of sexual assault  Only 1 in 10 are reported to police o Embarrassment, self-blame, mistrust of police o Greater willingness to report as a result of public attitudes  Most occur in summer and on weekends o Prom is a very popular day for rape  39% of women over 18 report having been sexually assaulted sometime in their lives Types of rapes  Groth and Birnbaum, 1979  Anger rape o Means of expressing rage o Excessive brutality o Form of punishment for ex  Power rape o Exert control over women o Less violence used o Ex: in workplace (sex for job/promotion)  Sadistic rape o Abusive and degrading o Involves ritual and torture  Gang rape o Peer pressure  He said/she said problem  Stranger rapes o More violent o More predominant in official statistics o More likely to involve weapons  Acquaintance rapes o Less likely to be reported o Probably makes up the majority of rapes o About half of reported rapes o Also family members  Date Rape o Canadian college women survey (1993)  1/3 experienced physical, verbal, or psychological coercion  25% in previous year o Increased use of date rape drugs o Cases of gang rapes o Campaigns  Fight back  No means no  Sexual harassment vs sexual assault o Sexual assault: predominantly men against women, but also men against men, and women against women o Sexual harassment Marital Rape  Sexual assault is common as part of domestic violence  Marital exemption o Sexual consent was seen as part of the marriage contract o Abolished in canada in 1983  Also in many countries o Women no longer seen as property Explaining rape  Evolutionary/biological factors o Aggression gives reproductive advantage o Before speech was developed, rape was used to reproduce (consent was impossible to acquire) o Men go flacid when sexually assaulting women  Male socialization o Stereotypes of masculinity o Sexually aggressive, dominant  Mental illness/personality disorders  Social learning and pornography  Sexual motivation  Feminist theory: all about having power over individual Rape and the law
More Less

Related notes for CRM1300

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit