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Canada (510,273)
Criminology (2,472)
CRM1300 (408)
Sam Alvaro (78)

Lecture 4: Violent Crime

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Sam Alvaro

Violent Crime Roots of Violence  Personal traits o Brain injuries, mental illness, abnormal brain wave patterns, low intelligence, psychotic symptoms, etc o A lot is unknown about brain (we don’t really know what effect certain things will have)  Family dysfunction o Family violence, physical and sexual abuse, physical punishment, inconsistent discipline o Family violence: being victim or witness to violence can get us to recreate thos epatterns (as victims and perpetrators)  Drugs o Alcohol increases aggression o Trafficking creates disputes  Underground economies regulated through violence o Addiction creates need for money  ---> robbery  Firearms availability o Explains US-Canada differences  In Canada, 14 000 gun-related deaths over 10 years  Mainly suicides (81%) and accidents Sexual Assault Historical Masculinity Related Issues  Women were viewed as property of men, until about 1920s  Rape was an offence against the father or husband, not against female (damaged goods) Rape diminished the value of wife or daughter  Rape and the Military  Canadian and American military o 1970s: women enter military o Complaints of sexual assault in 1990s  Rape has long been associated with warfare  Women were considered to be the spoils of war o Vietnam, Bosnia, Africa  Rape used as ethnic cleansing Incidence of sexual assault  Only 1 in 10 are reported to police o Embarrassment, self-blame, mistrust of police o Greater willingness to report as a result of public attitudes  Most occur in summer and on weekends o Prom is a very popular day for rape  39% of women over 18 report having been sexually assaulted sometime in their lives Types of rapes  Groth and Birnbaum, 1979  Anger rape o Means of expressing rage o Excessive brutality o Form of punishment for ex  Power rape o Exert control over women o Less violence used o Ex: in workplace (sex for job/promotion)  Sadistic rape o Abusive and degrading o Involves ritual and torture  Gang rape o Peer pressure  He said/she said problem  Stranger rapes o More violent o More predominant in official statistics o More likely to involve weapons  Acquaintance rapes o Less likely to be reported o Probably makes up the majority of rapes o About half of reported rapes o Also family members  Date Rape o Canadian college women survey (1993)  1/3 experienced physical, verbal, or psychological coercion  25% in previous year o Increased use of date rape drugs o Cases of gang rapes o Campaigns  Fight back  No means no  Sexual harassment vs sexual assault o Sexual assault: predominantly men against women, but also men against men, and women against women o Sexual harassment Marital Rape  Sexual assault is common as part of domestic violence  Marital exemption o Sexual consent was seen as part of the marriage contract o Abolished in canada in 1983  Also in many countries o Women no longer seen as property Explaining rape  Evolutionary/biological factors o Aggression gives reproductive advantage o Before speech was developed, rape was used to reproduce (consent was impossible to acquire) o Men go flacid when sexually assaulting women  Male socialization o Stereotypes of masculinity o Sexually aggressive, dominant  Mental illness/personality disorders  Social learning and pornography  Sexual motivation  Feminist theory: all about having power over individual Rape and the law
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