Class Notes (836,807)
Canada (509,909)
Criminology (2,472)
CRM1300 (408)
Sam Alvaro (78)
Lecture 5

Lecture 5 White Collar crime.docx

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Sam Alvaro

White Collar crime, corporate crime, and organized crime White-collar crime  Father of whiite-colar crime: Edwin Sutherland (1883-1950) o Focused on corporate crime o Considered "dean" of criminology o Before that, people concentrated on lower-class crime  White-collar criminals o Are mainly hidden from criminologists  b/c if they reveal themselves, they will lose money  As opposed to murder for example, money is a big part of white collar crime o Cause high financial cost o Damage social institutions and social relations  Definition o Committed by individuals who use the marketplace for their criminal activity  Types: o Middle-class deviance  Tax evasion, credit card fraud, bankruptcy fraud o Professional/elite deviance  Medical fraud, investment fraud o Business fraud  Embezzlement o Occupational crime  Employee theft o Corporate crime  False advertising o State-corporate crimes  Kickbacks  How serious is it? o Much higher costs than street crime o 1997: 57% f companies claimed being cheated by their own employees o In US  Over 20 million serious injuries in workplace  Over 30 000 deaths per year o Receive light penalties o International problem  Types of crime (Moore, 1980) o Stings and swindles  Financial  Religious o Chiselling  "taking a little off the top"  Not as noticeable as stings  Occupational  Professional  Securities fraud o Individual exploitation of position  Government taking bribes or kickbacks  Industry taking bribes or kickbacks o Influence peddling and bribery  Government, criminal justice system, business o Embezzlement and employee fraud  Blue-collar fraud, management fraud o Client frauds  Insurance fraud, credit card fraud, medical insurance fraud o Corporate crime  Price-fixing, illegal restraint of trade  False advertising  Environmental crime High-Tech crimes  Internet crimes o Pornography o Stalking o Hate crimes o Get rich quick scams  Computer crimes o Theft of services o Use of data o Fraud to obtain assets o Theft (of software, downloading music) o Viruses (over 56 000 in 2000) Corporate culture theory  Encourages excessively high goals while tolerant of employee deviance  Braithwaite (1987) o Corporate climate conducive to crime is the result of poor relations with government Shame of discovery  o Provides definitions unfavourable to law-breaking o Internal (whistle-blowing) or external (inspections) Self-control  Hirschi and Gottfredson (1987) o White-collar crime is rare o People who get ahead in business have learned self-control, are not likely to engage in crime o Similar to street crime in terms of who does it o Offenders are egocentric, often repeat offenders  Benson and Moore (1992) o 3 types of white-collar offenders  Impulsive, low self-control (constantly giving out freebies)  Calculating, high self-control (Martha Stewart)  Opportunistic, medium self-control (Y2K) Controlling white-collar crime  Conflict theory o Prosecution is rare o Few are punished o Sentences are light o Small and medium sized businesses are major targets for enforcement o Judges don’t see them as real criminals o Civil rather than criminal law Law enforcement  Largely dependent on government administrators/inspectors o Government cutbacks (when this happens we lose administrators/inspectors) o Complaint-based rather than proactive  RCMP o Focuses on organized crime (ie bikers), drug trafficking  Corporate policing o Traub (2006)  Security measures  Contract security personnel, closed circuit TV
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