Class Notes (836,135)
Canada (509,645)
Criminology (2,472)
CRM1300 (408)


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Carolyn Gordon

CLASSICAL CRIMINOLOGY▯ ▯ Economic/Social Context:▯ Life during the 18th Century:▯ ▯ • Shift from Feudalism to modern nation state▯ • Protestant Reformation▯ - emergence of democracy▯ - ‘man is capable of interpreting the bible without the pope’▯ - power of church is weakened, man is elevated to new status▯ - humans are no longer puppets of the church▯ ▯ • Protestant Work Ethic▯ - people who were hard workers, was because they were pre-destined to be saved and those who weren’t hard workers were more likely to be damned▯ ▯ • Industrial Revolution (1750-1850)▯ - people have begun moving to urban areas for better employment and to be closer to factories.▯ - new forms of social control▯ ▯ • New forms of social control are necessary▯ - why? people weren’t living in such fear anymore. greater population; you also become much more anonymous because of this. it increases the chance that you will commit criminal activity. in the past, because everyone knew one another, shaming was very effective. ▯ ▯ Intellectual Context:▯ The Enlightenment (1650- 1800)▯ ▯ • Reason is idealized▯ • Doctrine of free will and rationality▯ • Natural rights exist and must be protected by the rule of law▯ • Humans are hedonistic▯ - someone who wants to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.▯ - “if i do this, will it give me the most amount of pleasure?”▯ ▯ Do you agree or disagree?▯ • Offenders make (personal) choices about committing crimes based on anticipated rewards. What are some of these rewards?▯ - Financial rewards, Prestige, Pleasure, Self-preservation ▯ • Individuals will decide NOT to commit crimes when the risks are too high or the rewards are not adequate. What are some of these risks?▯ - Punishment (prison, community service, etc), Being labeled, ▯ ▯ What is the social contract?▯ ▯ • An imaginary agreement wherein people freely give up some of their individual group. —> utilitarianism ▯er to ensure their own safety and well being of the entire ▯ What was the ‘justice system’ like during the Middle Ages??▯ ▯ • They were not fair; not just▯ • Very arbitrary (who you were, who you knew moe than what you did)▯ • Great deal of use of torture (leads to false confessions.. people were punished for crimes they didn't commit)▯ • Law was not codified ▯ ▯ Critique of Criminal Justice During the 18th Century▯ ▯ • Capital Punishment▯ • Negative effect▯ • Judges reluctant to convict▯ • Deterrent effect??▯ ▯ • Transportation▯ • What to do with all the prisoners?? ▯ ▯ • Jails▯ •were very corrupt…)▯g trial or execution not place to go after finding guilt… they Industry $$▯ • • run strictly for money at the time. everyone had to pay a fee, innocent or not. anything and everything the guards would charge for, they would. ▯ • Breeding grounds▯ • because there was no classification.. breeding ground for corrupting othe
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