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CRM1301 (295)
Lecture

CRM1301 First half of Semester

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM1301
Professor
Tien Nguyen
Semester
Winter

Description
CRM1301 January 9th − Fact or fiction − Crime is increasing − False − Most people are victimized by strangers − False − People over 65 are most likely to be victims of crime − Flase − Even less likely to be victims − Tend to be more secluded and away from society − 18-24 are most likely to be victimized − Poor people are much more likely to commit crime than middle-class people − False − Official statistics say minorities and lower socio-economic individuals commit more crime − Perhaps racism is playing a larger role in the arrests and convictions of marginalized individuals despite middle and upper class people are engaging in the same activities − IT is much easier to focus on street crimes rather than white-collar crimes − Violent crime is more prevalent than property crime − False − It is much easier to tell the story of a violent crime rather than − Violent crime inflicts the most harm on people in society − False − Corporate crime costs more money and ruins more crime − Do we use theory in everyday life? − We use theory to make sense of certain events that take place in life − Colombine shootings − What was put forth to explain the crime − The ease of access to weapons − Manson's music − Video games − Bullying − etc. − What factors contribute to crime − Mental health issues − Peer pressure − Poverty − Substance abuse − etc − Theory − Aparticular way of looking at something − Why do we have theories − They help us provide explanations − Show different perspectives − Attempt to describe, explain, predict and ultimately to control some class of events − What is theory? − Theory is − Ahypothesis − And understanding − and explanation − Simple − Complex − Abstract − Concrete − Theory is not − The truth − The answer − Assumptions in criminological theory − Level of study − micro − Looking at specific individuals − macro − Looking at structures within society (The big picture) − Basis of society − Consensus − Everyone in society shares general consensus on laws, the CJS, etc. − Conflict − Society is divided based on coercion and power − Individuals − Active − active in the decision making processes − Passive − Something is at work that is pushing an individual to partake in crime − Criminological nexus − Theory − Research − Policy − Kitty Genovese − the diffusion of responsibility − The more people there are around the less likely someone is to intervene − 2 systems of reasoning − Inductive method − Asituation occured − They analyzed it − Explained it (theory) − Deductive method − Explain (theory) − Test the theory − Verify or refute the theory − The experiment − Is variable X a cause of variable Y − Independent variable − The variable that is manipulated − Dependent variable − The variable that is measured − Operationalization of variable − State how your are defining the variable − Prisons are often violent institutions, but does the prison setting itself play a part in generating violence and disorder − The correlation − Away to measure how associated two variables are − Systematically measuring two or more variable and assessing the relationship between them − How much one can be predicted by the other − Positive correlation − both variables go in the same directions − Negative correlation − Both variables go in opposite directions − Explain − Aresearch study foud that having a pet in the childhood is correlated with a reduces likelihood of one becoming a juvenile delinquent − Can be a reflection of the family's socio-economic stance − Can teach the child responsibility − Can teach the child social skills − Spurious correlation − an apparent but false relationship between 2 (or more) variables that is caused by some other variables January 14 th − Intro to Theories - Continued − Crime and Deviance is Related to: − Time − Place − Knowledge is Context Bound − 'Reality “ is socially constructed − All knowledge must be understood in the context in which it arises: − Political Context − Socio-economique context − Intellectual Context − Personal Context − Criteria for Evaluating Theory − Testability − Reliability − Consistent results − Logical soundness − Tautological reasoning − Time order problem – event that occurs after another event is assumed to have cause the first − The theorist mistakes what comes first − Validity − Making sense out of two or more opposing facts − Sensitizing ability − Focus attention on new direction of inquiry − Scope − Broad and Simplistic − The Demonic Perspective − Trephining − Removing a piece of bone in the skull to release evil spirits − Salem Witch Trials − Two girls claimed to have their bodies by the devil − They said that three of the town's women were witches − Salem witch trials : 1692 ** − What to do with the witches − Questions − Are you a witch? − Have you seen satan? − If you are not a witch what is responsible with what is happening to the girls? − Punishments − Burnings − Middle of the day, where everyone could come watch − Assumptions of Demonology − Looks for the cause and for the cure of deviant behaviour in the realm of the supernatural − The Inquisition − Tribunal court system used by the catholic church to root out, to punish the heretics − Heretic − Those who go against the teachings of the church − Pagans − Anyone that did anything that went against the church − In 1616 Galileo was put to house arrest because of his theory that stated the earth went around the sun and not having the earth as the centre of the Universe − Deviance = sin − Deviance has cosmic consequences − Harmful to victims − God − The entire cosmos − Two paths to Demonic Deviance − The individual is an active agent − They were in control of their actions and could resist temptation − The individual should then be punished because they can resist temptation − The individual is a passive agent − Aresult of the devil taking over their body and mind − Once being taken over, the actions are deterministic − How to Diagnose the Handiwork of the Devil − Trials by ordeals − Torture − Practiced in the name of God − God would not allow an innocent man to be condemned and would intervene to allow that man to live − Trials − Trial by heat − Walking with a hot iron/walk over coals − 3 days later the preist would come inspect the wound − If it began to heal the person was innocent, if not they were guilty − Trial by water − Thrown into a lake and if they floated, they were guilty, if not they were innocent − The Trials − Accused must testify − Refusal = proof of guilt − Immediately informed of charges − Anyone could testify against the witch − were not told who the accusers were − No supporters/legal assistance − 5 Types of Evidence to Convict − Trial by clever test − Bring the accused infront of a group and forced to say the lord's prayer − If they slipped up, it was used as evidence − Individual testimony − Someone who came forth and attributed their own bad fortune to the demonic activities of the accused − Physical marks of the devil − Anyone who had any abnormality would show that they are in pact with the devil − Spectral evidence − Base on testimony that is the result of a dream/vision − Because the devil could not take over an innocent body − Confession of guilt − May bring them back to the faith and their soul would be saved − a − Confessions − Bring the accused back to faith − Forgiveness and/or saving of the soul − Inquisitioners better educated than their subjects and trained in questioning − Industry − Taking the belongings from witches to pay for the process − The more witches there are, the money is to be made − Confessional Devices − The headcrusher − These are not forms of punishment, strictly to get confessions − The Inquisitional Chair − Composed of little tiny spikes − Iron Spider/Cat's Paw − Judas' Cradle − Chair with a spike that one would be dropped on − Strappado − The Rack − Subject stretched out arms above head − Religious Control – More Shame than Pain − Golden Pear − Ducking Stool − Bonus assignment − Must be typed − What was the name and publication date of the book that sets out the prohibitions and dangers of witchcraft − Witchcraft in Context − Provides explanation − Changes and Turmoil in society − Black plague, War, etc. − Witches provided a reason to blame all of these things on − The church put forward the idea of witches to take god off the hook or what was happening − Gave an answer to a population that was beginning to be uneasy − Maintain the status quo − protect privileges − Women were helping each other with contraception, birthing, etc. Without proper training so the church made the idea of witches to help keep the status quo − Challenge authority = charged with heresy − Divert attention − Blame witches and the church becomes indispensible − Scapegoat − Discourage rebellious behaviour − Target powerless or threatening groups nd − 2 bonus assignment − Remember, the material from all videos shown in class will also be on your exams − Based on this video, make up 2 multiple choice questions: − you must include 5 options (1-e) − you must indicate the correct answer − questions must be reflective of course content − no numbers or statistics − Bonus Questions − The _________ set up the inquisition to impose _______ a) Roman Church, the people's will b) Roman Church, their will c) British Monarchy, repression d) British Monarchy, witch burnings e) People, their will ANSWER : B − The _________ was the punishment given to those who fell asleep in church a) Ducking Stool b) Mask of Shame c) Rosary Necklace d) Iron Maiden e) None of the above ANSWER : C − The Burning Times − What groups were particularily vulnerable to the witch hunts? − Women − Those of other religions who practiced rituals − Healers/Mid Wives − Women were thought to be the main creators of witchcraft − Elderly people − Beggars − Those who held an opinion that differed from the church − Midwives − What factors made the witch hunts happen? − The religious persecutions commited by the church of Rome. − The changes taking place in the broader society − The midwives interfering with god's will by using contraception and carrying out abortions and helping during birthing to reduce the pain. They thought that reducing pain during birth was stopping God's punishment for Eve's sin. − The thought of women being able to out live men aand their “resistence” to the plague would make disproportionate numbers in the genders and lead to womeen being independent − Notes from the movie − Women's power was associated with death and evil − Healing witches were relying on catholic faith during their rituals but the rituals were rooted in the pagan religion − The church of rome set up the inquisition to impose their will. (use as bonus assignment question) − Those who fell asleep in church wore the Rosary Necklace Janurary 21st − “The Burning Times” − What groups were particularily vulnerable to the witch hunts? − What factors made the witch hunts happen? − Questioning of the church − Needing an explanation for the bad things that were happening during the time − False admissions of guilt − Rationale for Punishment − Rooted in Christianity − Biblical Law – Lex talionis − Lex talonis = Retribution (an eye for an eye) − Penance through physical pain − Nothing sacred about the body − Restore order of the world − Maintain balance − In order to maintain, punishment was necessary − Cosmic Consequences − When one commited a crime, it harmed the entire universe − Eliminate evil spirits through death − Symbolism of Fire − Symbolizes the flames of Hell − Deterrence − General − Making an example of an individual so others do not commit similar acts − Specific − Preventing a specific individual to no longer commit crime − Social Control − Rid Society of undesirable/deviant − The Demonic Era − Authority/power? − The Church − What was considered a crime? − Anything that went against what the church said.Anything that was a sin was a crime, anything the was a crime was a sin − Explanations of deviance? − Tempatation or possession − How were the guilty determined? − Spectral evidence − Testimony − Confessions − Trial by ordeal − etc − Rationale/purpose of punishments − Nature of Punishment? − Physical − Symbolic − Public − Modern Day “Witch Hunts”?! − A“witch hunt” occurs any time a group of people persecutes another group unfairly, usually blaming that group for larger problems. − Socially Constructed Problems: The Moral Panic − What is moral panic? − An intense feeling expressed in a population about an issue that appears to threaten the social order − The population is in fear and that society is breaking down − Moral Entrepreneur − Organizations/individuals that want to impose their morality by trying to create a moral panic to change society − Folk Devils − TheAge of the Monarchy − The Late MiddleAges − King Harold ruled − England broken up into principalities − Princes held absolute power within their own borders − Communication was very poor − Law was localized − Was completely up to the Prince within his principality − 1066 – Battle of Hastings − William of Normandy becomes the new ruler − The Rise of the Monarch − Society based on feudalism − Lords and Serfs − Serfs were more or less slaves and could not do anything without the permission of the Lord − Lord's courts were developed − Instead of battling one another − Church was centralized and uniting power − Monarch needed blessing of the Church − Absolute Monarchy − Monarch has the power to rule their land freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force − It was believed that this would prevent religious wars − Local autonomy taken away in exchange for peace and safety − The divine rights of kings − God chose the kings − They inherited the right directly from God − What does this imply to the masses? − If you defy the king, you defy God. − Sinful for subjects to resist the Monarch = Heresy or treason − Aform of social control − If a ruler didn't like a certain group, he could punish them however they wanted to without consequences − The Emergence of the King's Court − Henry II streamlined procedures and made them fairer − He tried to make it much faster and the decision be much fairer − Barrens local courts diminished in popularity − Circuit judges --> Deciding cases on the basis of situations of similar facts − Established Common Law * − Stare Decicis − Established by the judges that went on circuits − What is... − The earliest codified law system governing human behaviour in the world − − The concept/reasoning what guided the punishments found in this 'system' − Trial by battle − Two wealthy* people would pay two people to battle and the winner was deemed to be innocent − Trial by cursed morsel − The clerigy was given food with a hidden feather and that person ate the food without choaking it was shown as a sign of innocence − Trial by Wager − They would have to gather 12 reputable people and get them to testify for the offenders good behaviour and this proved innocence − The King's Courts − Trial by wager was replaced by trial by jury − Grand Assize − Men chosen by the king and would go out into the community to find people that were committing wrong doings − PetitAssize − Had the responsibility of judging the accused. − Grand Assize could serve on the petit assize (made the system unfair) − Three different types − Exchequer − Court of Common Please − King's Bench* (only one of the three we will look at) − Composed of the King's advisers where criminal cases would be heard − Equvalent to the Supreme Court − The King's Justice − All crimes became against the King's peace − Massive Criminalization of previously non-criminal acts − WHY??? − Because, the more people are guilty, the more property is confiscated and the monarch becomes richer − What is the Bloody Code? − Atime period where the amounts of crimes that were punishable by death − By over 100 crimes − Why so bloody? − The wealthy were not sympathetic to those who were found guilty because they felt these people were lazy and undeserving of sympathy − The wealthy wer
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