CRM 1301: Lecture #2 Jan 16 2012
Represents a broader umbrella for the theories [=subparadigm]
Basic unit of consensus certain ideologies:
Classical Criminology the actions of people, and how people are responsible
Positive Criminology – behavior, the experience or environment of the individual. Ex: Biological,
Sociological, Psychiatric, Psychological
Fundamental image of subject matter.
Role of Paradigms:
Define legitimate problems.
Define rules of research activity.
Draw practitioners into the community.
Early Middle Ages The Demonic Perspective:
Theories=conditioned by contexts
Definitions of crime – reflect
Explanations of crime relations
Organization of punishment – of power
Oldest Known perspective
social order= god/church no central authority
subsistence societies. Punishment:
Guilt Public , was a humiliating spectacle. Was to portray some sort of education to the audience.
Church Administration –
Cleansing Purging – being healed some way of their sins.
LEX TALIONIS “eye for an eye” retribution, vengeance
1000 B.C 500 A.D
Roman Law 12 Tablets
Threat to Roman Law – 12 Tablets
Threat to Roman Law= Deviance
Burning at the stake, cooked to death, burned to the goil
Lime Pits Drowning –acidity
Crucifixionoften broke limbs first to speed up death, there was torturous rituals before the event happened,
most common, several days until death Example: Passion of the Christ
Lex Talionis Middle Ages:
4/5 —15 Centuries
Conversion to Christianity
Fire – walking on burning coals, carry lump of hot iron, there feet were bound and bandaged, after three
days if there was any sign of healing that would determine guilt of innocence concept of being “saved by
Water ducking stool, plunged under water, in boiling water
Combat if they were put in a violent situation and they lost they were considered guilty and if they were
strong and won they were considered innocent.
Iron Maiden: Iron Maiden An iron maiden is a torture device, consisting of an iron cabinet, with a hinged
front, sufficiently tall to enclose a human being. It usually has a small closeable opening so that the torturer
can interrogate the victim and torture or kill a person by piercing the body with sharp objects (such as
knives, spikes or nails), while he or she is forced to remain standing.
Rack:The Rack The rack is a torture device consisting of a rectangular, usually wooden frame, slightly
raised from the ground, with a roller at one, or both, ends, having at one end a fixed bar to which the legs
were fastened, and at the other a movable bar to which the hands were tied. The victim's ankles are
fastened to one roller, and the wrists are chained to the other. As the interrogation progresses, a handle and