Lecture 2: The Birth of Modern Prison and the Role of State Punishment
George Rusche was first to try and place crime in a SOCIAL context. In his work he
tried to look at why certain punishment practices emerged in particular
circumstances. His theory is when we change penal practices, it is partially explained
by an economic structure, the labour patterns in given societies.
Guiding Premise: To understand shifts in penalty we must look beyond the causes of
‘crime’ and situate punishment practices within the social contexts in which they
emerge. The development of legal institutions is a history and relationship between
the rich and the poor people in society.
Research Question: How do changes in the economic structures of given society
impact penal sanctions?
o 1. In contexts of labour surpluses (a lot of unemployed people) and related
societal unrest, penal sanctions are devised according to the principle
of less eligibility (conditions inside prisons are worse that the living
conditions in society) as a means of deterrence.
Unemployed masses tend to commit crimes of desperation because of
hunger and deprivation, and they will only be stopped from doing so
by cruel penalties. In this given context, the fact of being given food in
prison would make prison an enticement, not a deterrent. Therefore,
where there is much unemployment, capital punishment is the best
o 2. In contexts of labour shortages (not enough skilled workers to fill the jobs)
and increased living standards, penal sanctions are devised to be ‘humane’
and generate wealth to deflate general living standards
If everybody who wants to work can find a job, then the lowest class is
made up of unskilled workers, not unemployed people; therefore the
reason for crime is no longer hunger or desperation. The punishment
then is required to make the unwilling worker work and to teach other
criminals that they have to live with the income that they have. Here
the best punishment would be to make the criminals work for their
food. Here capital punishment is not favored because where the
criminals labor is valuable, exploitation is preferred.
Early middle Ages:
Population: small, people had their peace and the means to produce food and shelter
Labour: Subsistence economy
Wealth Distribution: Relatively even with access to land. Social pressure on the
lower classes was hindered due to the fact that people had the possibility of settling
on free land and this led to a relatively even distribution of society’s wealth.
Frequency of Crime: Infrequent, and crimes against property were very rare,
because a farmer would rarely take things from his neighbor which he could produce himself at a lesser cost. What led to crime were the primitive stirrings of
sexuality and hatred.
Types of crime: violent, and between families, it was hate driven and sexual
Crime Control Objectives: Reconciliation and feud prevention (come to some kind of
agreement). The real deterrent was fear of private revenge by the injured party.
Crime Control Strategies: penance and fines. Crime was seen, as a form of war and
the goal of legislators was the reconciliation of the enemies by recognized principles.
Late middle Ages:
Population: growth and concentration. Those on the land have settled that land,
though the population is growing and those people have nowhere to go, no land. No
land, meant no access to shelter or food. Emergence of a chasm, those who were
really rich and those who are really poor.
Wealth Distribution: disparate (rich and poor) with property in demand and
inaccessible to many. Due to the scarcity of land, separation of classes into rich and
Frequency of crime: increasing
Types of crime: unrest and property, beggars, thieves to access goods they did not
Crime control objectives: deterrence, those in power decided they had to come up
with something to deter the poor from stealing. Fines were not longer seen as useful
as those committing the crimes had no money to begin with.
Crime control strategies: corporal and capital punishment, reasons for this type is
because the poor have nothing else to lose, so punishment made sense. You can’t fine
people who can’t pay
Emergence of Mercantilism:
Mercantilism: governments start to control trade. See the formation of nation states
Person and property rights are important and the establishment of the ‘rule of law’
created by a property owning class (bourgeoisie)
Population: Declines, there has been war, plagues, many people have died and many
people are leaving Europe to colonize other territories
Wealth distribution: Increase in living standards, employers would have no one to
work for them so they had to give raises to those who asked so they would not leave.
People become valuable as a shortage of workers occurred, therefore, those working
were valuable and the workers wages rose and the standard for the lowest class
Frequency of crime: stable
Types of crime: unrest
Crime control objectives: profit under the guise of ‘humanitarianism’ and
confinement to prison takes over capital punishment
Crime control strategies: Prison as a workhouse, conditions in prison was good so
they would have the energy to work and it was more profitable for the prisons.
Emergence of Capitalism: Capitalism: industrialization, factories, mass production.
Prisons were not longer profitable, because workers voluntarily offered their labor
for minimum existence; it was no longer worth coming up with the cost of
confinement and supervision.
Population: Increasing, people are moving from country to urban centers
Wealth distribution: decrease in living standards and employment scarcity, more
unemployed people since factories require less people to work them. Much disease
in this time.
Frequency of crime: increasing, people are rebelling due to poor living conditions
Types of crime: unrest
Crime control objectives: deterrence, however forced labor was brought upon the
prisoners and penitentiaries became a place of pure torture.
Crime control strategies: prison as warehouse of less eligibility, solitary
confinement, regimes of silence. Prisoners were not sufficiently clothed and were
cramped together. Work was unprofitable, so it served as torture. Prison routines
were reinforced by the deterrent effect of beatings.
Away From Public Spectacles, Towards Concealment
Object of Punishment used to be the body
o Basis of perception: experience, they saw the punishment
o Effectiveness: intensity
o Source of deterrence: cruelty
o Blameworthiness: author of the act and the author of punishment, public
would see not only what the criminal did, but also seeing what the state can
do as punishment
o Visibility: spectacle
o Objective: punishment
o The body as the major target of penal repression disappeared
Object of punishment moved to the soul
o Basis of perception: consciousness, we imagine what punishment looks like.
Punishment had ceased to be a spectacle; punishment will then tend to
become the most hidden part of the penal process. As a result of this, justice
no longer takes public responsibility for the violence that is bound up with its
practice. We then imprison in order to deprive the individual of a liberty that
is regarded as both as a right and as property.
o Effectiveness: Inevitability
o Source of deterrence: certainty
o Blameworthiness: author of the act, it is the conviction itself that marks the
offender with unequivocally negative sign.
o Visibility: secrecy. As a result of this, justice no longer takes public
responsibility for the violence that is bound up with its practice.
o Objective: normalization, goal is to bring person who deviates back into the
norm (law-abiding citizen) Away from the Body, Towards the Soul:
Means of punishment used to be the public spectacle
o Role of the body: site of punishment
o Role of physical pain: punishment and/or elimination
o Role of the deprivation of liberty: confinement while awaiting punishment
o Role of professionals: infliction of pain
Means of punishment moved towards the prison
o It was an instrument of normalization and correction
Power is exercised rather than possessed, it is not the privilege of the dominant
class, but the overall effect of its strategic position. Power produces knowledge.
Power and knowledge directly imply one another.
The soul is the effect and instrument of a political anatomy, the soul is the prison of
Lecture 3: Giving a Purpose to Imprisonment Beyond Punishment
Construction of ‘Crime’ in Upper Canada:
Frequency of Crime: Scarce, very few men and women were convicted of the serious
offences like rape and murder, or robbery and burglary.
Types of crime: property offences
Basis of concern: symptom of immorality, social instability and lack of respect
Explaining crime: individual inadequacies such as lack of education, moral
instruction, discipline and character and vice. Thought property crimes revealed
other problems, such as people were not working enough, and people were drinking
too much, families were not cohesive. Concerned that if they did not address
criminality, it would spread like a disease and society would be out of control. One
of the most obvious routes from drinking to crime was economic as it cost so much
and was so debilitating that it could drive men to steal in order to support
themselves and their families. Said that crime was because people lacked education,
they lacked morals (thought did no go to church) and did not learn how to live life by
the clock. Men fell into crime because they had not learned the personal and social
discipline that religion imparted and had not learned to curb their baser instincts.
Therefore, education was society’s best defence against crime not capital
Source of Knowledge: news articles and political debates
Laws were created to protect private property as the accumulation of wealth was
becoming increasingly important. Concerns for moral reform also inevitably shaped
into criminal law and the punishment of crime. The reform of the criminal became
key to the future stability of the society
A decline in crime was welcome as evidence that reform was working, and increase
served notice that sterner measured were needed.
Mechanism for Restoring ‘Order’ and Moral Reformation Temperance: prohibit alcohol
Sabbatarianism: instituting a day of religion (Sunday)
Juvenile Schools: youth who commit crimes and need to be educated (nowadays
called boarding school)
Popular Education: education such as elementary, high school, teach future
generations of workers and teach morals and habits to working classes (living a
Capital punishment: in upper Canada there were over 200 crimes you could be killed
for by the state
The Emergence of the Prison as an Alternative Punishment in Canada:
Imprisonment came to seem ideally suited to perform this double task of punishing
and reforming, especially imprisonment that involved both work and religious
Decline in Legal Legitimacy:
o Selective administration of sentences
Due to many people being killed, the public did not see it as a
legitimate form of punishment as it was happening so frequently
o Reluctance to prosecute and convict
Prosecutors stopped prosecuting those who committed petty crime
because they did not want to see them die
o Capital punishment seen as immoral and / or ineffective
It was immoral, how does one wrong and another wrong make a right
it was prohibited in Christianity. From legislator’s pov it was not seen
as something that was effective, it did not deter people, so they began
to look at other forms of punishment.
Capital punishment was removed from a large number of pretty
crimes as it had been in England six years earlier. The alternative
punishment that made these changes possible was imprisonment and
hard labour in the penitentiary.
Emerging Legal Culture
o Proportionality: 2 people who commit the same act receive the same
punishment; punishment is somewhat proportional to the harm that they
o Reformation: Idea that we could actually reform people, change people using
different disciplines such as psychiatry.
Penal Reform in England
o Prison envisaged as a site of punishment and reformation through schooling,
work, moral influence, and discipline
o John Howard: was visiting prisons at that time (a place where they awaited
their punishment), proposed if we cleaned them up, and removed the vices
(alcohol) and institute work and schooling, religious training, we could
actually train them into become law abiding citizens New prisons emerge and it was not only about punishment but also about reform.
Said that the places were too small, so they started touring prisons in the US and
visited 2 types of prisons (1) Pennsylvania system and (2) auburn system
o Objectives: punishment and reform
o Basis for reformation: solitude and reflection
o Confinement: isolation at all times
o School, religious activities, work was all done alone. Idea was that spending
time by yourself, you would think about what you’ve done, and have done so
much reflecting you would come out a better person
o Objectives: Punishment and reform
o Basis for reformation: development of industrious work habits
o Confinement: communal work in silence during the day and separate cells at
o Were not alone all the time, would do work in groups (e.g. break rocks),
however you had to do it in silence or would receive corporal punishment. At
night is when you would reflect on your own.
Kingston used the Auburn System. Pennsylvania system was too new, and thought
that some of the prisoners looked too crazy. Thought that Auburn labour system was
more profitable, they wanted the institution to sustain itself (self-sufficient). Sends a
message not only about deterrence but also that they wanted people to change
o It was the idea that prison should be reformative, and institution that would
combat the moral failing that led men into crime and sends them back into
the world as new men.
o It was agreed that life in an institution must always be less eligible than the
life of the honest laborer.
o The warden was required to enquire into every convict’s circumstances and
character, into their education, work experience and skills, their religion,
their parents, their own drinking, in order to discover the particular source
and nature of the moral weakness that had brought them into the
o Routine: the prisoners were kept constantly employed at hard labor during
the daytime and kept singly in a cell at night. They were not allowed to speak
to or in any way communicate with each other. The point of this was to
impose regularity of labor and good work habits to the men who had been
lazy and committed a crime. Keepers would enforce these rules by using
punishment with discretion upon the convicts.
Relationship between staff and prisoners:
o It would cause a hierarchy between the prisoners and the staff. The staff
would feel superior to the prisoners and may use excessive force when the
prisoners break the rules, so more force than necessary. Things had gotten so
bad, that the media (newspapers), were saying that there were a lot of
messed up things happening in Kingston. Stories of kids getting corporal punishment. The public took issue with that, and due to that, a commission
was put into place (Brown Commission) to investigate what was going wrong.
o Prisoners: prevent from social interaction (can see people but cannot speak
to them), needs are unaccounted for, does hard labour reform people, breed a
sense of resentment
o Staff: If rules are difficult to follow, it will create a violent environment.
Creates and us and them situation and requires them to dehumanize the
prisoners in order to be able to treat them that way
o It was widely believed that the brutal punishments on the prisoners
contributed to the rise of crime as it hardened the men’s hearts and increased
their desire for revenge.
New Objectives, Familiar Outcomes:
A sentence is designed to send a message both to the person upon whom it is
imposed and to the rest of us, in whose name and at whose expense it is invoked.
The abuse of power taking place within prison walls has the tendency to make
prisoners more dangerous and more anti-social. The persistent recidivist statistic
can be related to the fact that so many in prisons have been irreversibly damaged nu
the system by the time they reach the final point, the penitentiary. It makes violent
inmates more violent, and non-violent inmates violent.
Imprisonment as a response to crime, is itself criminogenic, it actually produces and
reproduces the very behavior it seeks to control
Brown Commission Report
o Crisis: abuse and corruption, failure to reform, and an increase in crime
More people were going to prison, so deterrence wasn’t working, and
there was a lot of recidivism, so reform was not working. Decided to
look at the Pennsylvania system and implemented solitary
confinement for 6 months
o Main recommendations: solitary confinement for 6 months, corporal
punishment as last resort, segregation of juveniles (this was to avoid their
‘contamination), and education. Wanted to institute some type of education
regime, because those coming into prison seemed to lack basic skills such as
writing and reading so they wanted to teach them how. Move away from
punishment being a spectacle, and done in a more private way.
o It is important to treat every inmate equally and fairly, both to re-establish
the moral legitimacy of punishment and to allow the penitentiary experience
to have a reformative effect
Archambault Commission Report
o Crisis: failure to reform came to the conclusion that prisons fail to reform
people. Criminological research emerges within the prisons
o Main recommendations: rehabilitation, humane discipline, and classification
system. To rehabilitate people you need to give them leisure time in order to
be ‘normal’ human beings. Provide education, put more teachers inside
prisons. Restrict the use of corporal punishment, more than what Brown suggested. Must distinguish between frequent and first time, youthful
o Crisis: recidivism and crime school, prisoners are starting to resist the
system, riots in prisons emerged
o Main recommendations: community-based alternatives, personal reformation
in prison. It is the prisoners responsibility to reform themselves
Arbour Commission Report
o Crisis: abuse (esp. against women) and terror
o Main recommendations: women-centered and culturally appropriate
‘corrections’. Many of the women found abused were the aboriginal women,
so it was suggested that aboriginal prisons should be built.
There is a pattern, there are shifts in language, from rehabilitation, to reformation to
risk, but many of the practices stay the same.
Post WWII era human rights become a concern, treating people with dignity
becomes a social concern, and the belief that people can change becomes prominent,
especially in prison discourse.
Archambault advised we should rehabilitate by the use of institutions, brining in
professionals, adding leisure, was the idea we should make prison life as similar to
regular life as possible if we want them to come out ‘normal’. Moving into a period
where the deprivation of liberty is seen as enough of a punishment, we send them
there AS punishment not for punishment.
How we identify ourselves, is based on how we think others perceive us (looking
glass self). Degradation ceremonies are about the destruction of your identity.
Degradation ceremonies: have someone with a behaviour we don’t like, we try and
destroy that identity/behaviour
Criminalization as a degradation ceremony:
o If anything that we do is perceived as outside of the norm, there could be
degradation ceremonies to shame people.
o If one of the things we do is in conflict with the law, there is a degradation
ceremony that is the penal process, we call it crime, and you become a
criminal. Inside the system, in prison you are a criminal you are a number.
Conditions of a successful degradation ceremony:
o 1. Characterizing the event and perpetrator as ‘abnormal’, we say that this
goes against our common values/norms
o 2. Contrasting to ‘normal’ events and individuals, telling the person ‘‘this is
you, you are messed up and need to fix you, here are the other people, you
need to be like them’’
o 3. Expertise of denouncer and her or his shared characteristics with
witnesses is reinforced. The judge who decides whether person is guilt or not guilty, that person has to be seen as one of the people, that they share
something in common, one of us.
o 4. Denunciation occurs on the basis of common values and is perceived to be
done on behalf of witnesses. Whatever the denouncer does, is meant to reflect
the values of everyone else. Idea that if we were in that seat we would make
the same decision, the judge represents all of us.
o 5. Denouncer is given authority to speak on behalf of witnesses and represent
their values. Denouncer has to be perceived as having authority, that can
denounce (label someone as criminal)
o 6. The denouncer is seen by the witnesses as supporting their values, when
the denouncer is making the decision, doing it for the greater good and this is
why the denouncer is doing it.
o 7. Social distance needs to be created between the denouncer and the
denounced + witnesses. The denouncer still needs to be a part from us
because he is seen as being able to degrade anyone of us if we fall out that
o 8. The denounced person is segregated from society, the criminal, we find a
way to remove that person from normal free everyday existence
First prison sociologist, where he is looking at the social dynamics of the prison and
prison community. Concerned at looking how the process of being punished inside
the prison can be harmful to the person’s reformation in prison.
o Group Characteristics of those being acculturated: different, it tries to define
people can acquire a new culture (e.g. Residential schools was put in place to
strip Aboriginals of their culture, and so they could view the world in a
o Process Characteristic: gradual and unconscious, and you do not even notice.
Proposes that there are two different groups, and that one group is trying to
assimilate another group.
o Process Outcome: the assimilated come to share the sentiments, memories,
and traditions of the static group
o Group Characteristics of those being acculturated: Similar, the people there
already share common characteristics (breaking law). However the new
people coming in do no know some of the language and how things work in
o Process Characteristics: Rapid, conscious, It is a conscious process, because it
can be dangerous, you WANT to fit in because it means being alive or dead.
o Process Outcome: the taking on in greater or lesser degree of the folkways,
customs, and general culture of the penitentiary
Prisonization as a Social Process:
o 1. Forced anonymization and subordination: When in prison, you go from
having a name, to becoming anonymous, you get a prison number (identity erased), in some jurisdictions your given same cloths (style is erased). And
process early on let you know you are not at the top of the hierarchy, they let
you know that you are at the bottom
o 2. Development of new habits: need habits to fit in
o 3. Institutional language acquisition: take on the language of the institution
to understand what people mean, and try to understand what is going on.
o 4. Development of an attitude of entitlement: Development depends to the
prison staff such as food etc.
o 5. Aspirations for good prison work: When they “wise up” they find work to
busy themselves, but also to better your prison life (e.g. working in kitchen so
you can have more food)
How does prisonization undermine the pursuit of rehabilitation in prison and what
are the social consequences:
o Actions are being transformed but not necessarily in the way that we want
o Put people together who are criminalized, but expect to affect positive
o Prisoners get accustomed to the routine, to having certain things given to
them (always having food)
Determinants of Prisonization:
o Sentence length: the longer someone is in the prison community, the longer
they are to be prisonized
o Personality: if person has unpredictable behaviour, more likely to be
o Relationships Outside Prison: less likely, has more community connection
(family etc). Someone with less is more likely to attach themselves to prison
o Integration with Prisonized Groups: if they can get along with lots of people,
they can be more prisonized. If someone is less sociable and is less adaptive,
o View of Prisoner Subculture: Skeptical asks lots of questions about how your
supposed to act, less to be prisonized, than someone who is accepting of the
o Cell and work Placements: if they are around many people of the subculture,
more likely to be prisonized.
o Behaviour in Relation to Societal Norms: how does that person act in various
Important contribution is that he is pointing to the number of ways incarceration is
inflicting various harms. Shows some of the ways prison undermines its own
objectives, how it does no contribute to rehabilitation but to dehabilitation
The modern pains of imprisonment are often defined by society as a humane
alternative to the physical brutality and the neglect which constituted the major
meaning of imprisonment in the past
Pains of Imprisonment: o Liberty: Rejection from society, separation from loved ones, loss of civil
rights. Rejection from society amplifies the effect of rejection. This is the most
obvious loss that comes with imprisonment
o Goods and Services: Lack of access to amenities, separation from possessions
that define one’s identity, stigmatization of poverty. We own certain things
that we treasure and value, and if we lose it, it makes us uncomfortable (sad).
When you loose your possessions, you develop a sense that you are poor, we
live in a materialistic society, so if you have all of your objects taken away you
are ‘poor’ and that can cause ‘pains’.
o Heterosexual Relationships: Lack of desired sexual relationships, sexual
victimization, sexual confusion as it relates to one’s identity
o Autonomy: Institutionalized dependency, lack of self-determination, lack of
transparency regarding institutional decisions, humiliation. Can make you
feel like a child (being told what to do). Being called a number instead of your
name is degrading and affects your identity and autonomy.
o Security: Threat of violence, behavioral instability. Find yourself in situations
were you need to engage in violence in order to survive, which is the opposite
of rehabilitation. People feel unsafe, so the inmates become hyper vigilant.
Lack of trust among inmates, this can have serious psychological effects on
people; you may not sleep as well.
Modes of Adaptation:
o Physical Withdrawal
o Psychological Withdrawal: trying to take your mind and placing yourself
somewhere else. For example, many prisoners have claimed that writing and
doing art takes them away from their immediate situation of being
o Rebellion / Innovation: rioting (they give it to the staff like they receive it)
o Persuasion: done so in a manner that tries to improve your personal situation
you are in.
o Becoming ‘Collectivistic’: becoming part of that prison culture, trying to ally
yourself with certain people so you can get the things you are deprived of
o Becoming ‘Individualistic’: do your own time, do the time by yourself and try
to just get by and ignore everything else, or do things that only advance your
Total Institution Defined: Their encompassing or total character is symbolized by the
barrier to social intercourse with the outside that is often built right into the physical
plant, such as locked doors, high walls, barbed wire, cliffs, water, forests, or moors.
In total institutions people cannot simply walk out, they are confined to them.
Characteristics of a total institution:
o 1. All activities take place in one location under one authority
o 2. All activities take place in groups where members are treated similarly.
There is a division between people and authority (staff) o 3. All activities are imposed and take place according to a strict schedule,
everything from waking up, going to bed, eating, work is all according a strict
o 4. All activities are enforced to meet stated institutional objectives. E.g.
rehabilitation may be an objective; therefore all the activities are suppose to
be engaged towards those objectives.
Mortification Process: How our identities change within a particular institutional
context. When you enter a total institution, it disrupts your personality (it gets
o Role Dispossession: in our daily lives we take on different roles, however
imprisonment prevents you from acting out these different roles.
o Programming / trimming: you turn into an object, an object to be
manipulated, transformed and studied. You go through the admissions
o Will-breaking Contests: you think you have autonomy, but you find out that
in prison you don’t have those decisions to make anymore.
o Dispossession of Property: you identify with some of your personal
possessions, in prison you are dispossessed of this property or this identity
o Personal Disfigurement: enter prison with a certain conception of yourself,
your body is voluntarily/involuntary modified
o Verbal Humiliation: having to refer to someone, who is the similar age
saying ‘Sir’. Humiliation as being referred to as a number and not by your
o Taking on Disidentifying Roles: If someone does something that does not
correspond with your vision of yourself it can cause problems (e.g. rape)
o Contaminative Exposure: if you do not like violence, in prison you are
always exposed to it. You are exposed to things that you do not want to see,
however you do not have a choice. You cannot get a way from certain things.
o Experiential Mortification: experience something that doesn’t work with
how you see yourself (hear someone get raped but you cannot help them
because you are in your jail cell)
o Restrictions on Autonomy and Freedom: not being able to control certain
Consequences of the Mortification Process:
o Institutionalization: having the institution govern all aspect of life. Person
may no longer be able to make decision on their own when released as they
are so used to people telling them what and how to do something.
o Self-esteem Issues: your self is being attacked, you start to question yourself
and criticize ourselves
o Stress is constant and doesn’t go away and it can have implications later
down the road.
The Privilege System: Purpose of a privilege system is to ensure some form of
compliance with the prisoners, trying to get them to be cooperative in a situation
where it is hard.
o House Rules: institution rules that people are expected to abide by o Privileges: prison deprives us of certain things. The suspensions of the
deprivations is what is seen as a privilege (e.g. providing someone with a bar
o Punishments: if you break the rules, used to try through a means of
deterrence and pain, to try and get that person to comply the way we want
Lines of Adaptation:
o Situational Withdrawal: putting yourself in a total institutional situation
and ignoring everything else around you, however once this happens it is
hard to go back and socialize. Ignores non-immediate events, irreversible
o Intransigence: the person challenges the institution (rebellion), rejecting the
rules. Challenges and/or rejects the institution, temporary
o Colonization: entering an institutional context, is that the institution keeps
referring to the outside world to motivate you. However, when you inside,
you adapt to being in prison so in effect it is not motivating. The inside is just
as good as the outside. Some may become so used to it that they may try to
stay in there longer, or once they get released, they may try and do something
to get back in, it is the idea that they are no used to such kind of autonomy.
o Conversion: the person actually takes on the staffs views
o Playing it cool: Use of various forms of adaptation, Limiting contact and
activities with prisoners
o Self-concern: People being concerned for themselves, self-pity, trying to
project a certain image of yourself by telling other inmates stories of yourself.
o Doing Time: Having a goal o