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Lecture 4

CRM2307 _ Partner Assault lecture 4.docx

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University of Ottawa
Christine Bruckert

CRM2307 – Partner Assault Historical Reflections: - Religious belief: Eve was the downfall, Adam was the smarter of the two, Jesus was male, therefore the clergy assumed that men were smarter and must guide their wife to salvation. And if that meant physical abuse that was okay, the men had to discipline their wife - A lot of pressure on women to stay in the home - Women would complain, and men would counter-complain that they were entitled to do it for the following: bad house keeping, bad mothering, bad cooking - Before the 1940’s women received support from social securities about spousal abuse - During the 1940’s with all the social upheaval women were seen as neurotic, rigid and as trouble. If a women complained to social services there was counseling done with her – because she was considered the problem not the male - During this time the police are largely useless, they do not have the resources and do almost nothing to prevent violence against women Types of Wife Assault 1) Physical 2) Sexual 3) Psychological / Emotional a. Picking on physical appearance b. Belittling the women c. Undermine women 4) Economic a. Taking control of their money b. Destruction of peoples belongings c. Taking things out on peoples pets 5) Intimidation a. Trying to scare women and have full control - Many women who face verbal abuse almost wish the man would hit them so that they at least have a reason to leave - Sleep deprivation is a form of wearing someone down - Isolation - Using children - Male privilege - Coercion and threats - Emotional abuse Effect of Living Abuse; - Women: o Super sensitized to the environment o Continual self monitoring o Self trivialization o Depression o Suicide o Felling helpless o Lack of energy o Insecurity o Guilt o Low to non- existent esteem o Social withdrawal o Physical pain o Eating disorders o Fear - Children: o Behaviour problems o Normalizes and legitimates violence o Lower social competencies o Self blame o Physical complaints o Deep disturbance o Eating disorders o Strong gender role Cycle of Violence: 1) Tension Building; he is moody. Irritable, critical, nitpicking, silent/sullen Isolates her, withdraws affection, blaming, name calling 2) Abusive Incident: he does verbal attacks, increased psychological abuse, humiliation, accuses partner of being crazy, threats to assault, forced imprisonment, physical/ sexual assault, use of weapons 3) Honey Moon: he begs forgiveness, “I’m sorry”, promises to get counseling / go to church, enlists family support, “ill never do it again”, declares love, cries Competing and Complementary Explanations Psychological: Question: why doe she’s not leave? Answer: battered Women’s Syndrome (Lenore Walker) Circle of violence + learned helplessness Sociological: Question: Why does he abuse her? Answer: Psycho/ social context Then Ask: Why does she stay? – Ideological, social, personal constraints Making Sense: Why men may abuse: - Traumatic experiences in childhood - Traditional sex role expectations (the man has a very gendered idea of men and women) - Individuals who are jealous - Individuals who are unable to take responsibility - What are notions of masculinity are - The idea that women are supposed to be passive and caring Why Women will not leave: - Women are not leaving abusive relationships because they are afraid. 50% of women who are killed by abuser are killed upon their attempt to leave their partner - Religious communities continue to put pressure on women to stay in relationships - Women fear that the partner are going to commit suicide - May buy into males context that abuse is okay Life After Billy (Video) : 1) How can we understand what happened to Jane? 2) How did she resist or attempt to? 3) Did she have a choice? 4) Did she have access to justice? a. No she did not because there was no way she could exit the system neutral or better,. Either way she would have been beaten more, by calling anyone she would anger him and put herself and her children at danger. The police were even afraid him making sure that no justice could be served. Response to Problem of Wife Battery: 1) Grass Roots a. Shelters – now they cannot actually advocate for social change b. Counseling c. Support d. Education e. Advocacy 2) Legislation a. Changes in evidence act b. Changes in Criminal Code 3) Police Practices a. Mandatory charging b. Attitudinal 4) Courts a. Vigorous prosecution b. Domestic violence courts c. Early intervention d. Coordinated (and aggressive) prosecution e. Battered women’s defense 5) Criminal Justice Response 6) Problems with state response - The evidence act change - They remove the violence act to the assault act - 1968 you can finally divorce on the basis of physical violence - They also changed it so that the police no longer have to witness violence to make charges (1982) – if they reasonable and pr
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