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Chap.2 - Theory and Ideologies.docx

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University of Ottawa
Rebecca Jesseman

CRM2306 - Theory and Ideology - Political Culture: o Fundamental values, beliefs, and orientation held within a political community - Subcultures: o Variations within national culture  i.e. gender, culture  Any grouping that has a coherent perspective that differs from the whole  Can be generational - Political Culture Theories o Political theory:  Ideology based o Policy Theory:  Process based o Founding fragments:  When a new society forms, it takes a piece of the society it came from  Political roots of Canada stem from England o Formative events:  One crucial event in the society’s history forms the political system o Post-materialist:  Recent  Attempt by current theorist to explain how people are now  People are not only driven by capitalism  People are more interested in the environment, not as much about work anymore  Those who are raised in the context of affluence are less likely to be attached to material goods - Ideologies: o Set of ideas, values, and beliefs o Based on assumptions about human nature o Generalizations, blurred lines - Democracy: o Citizen participation o Elected representatives o Human rights & freedoms o Accountability - Capitalism: o Private owners control the means of production o Profit-oriented o Individual autonomy o Because the state does not own the production, business owners who have access to the money have great influence on policy - Liberalism: o Value: Individual rights and freedoms o Limited state intervention o Based on the power of the individual and maximizing individual’s rights o Role of the state:  Only interfere when an individual is not capable to make rational decisions or when the freedom of individual rights would infringe on the rights of another  Market is an independent body - Conservatism: o Value: Social stability o State is responsible for maintaining social stability and civility o Dependent on established institutions and traditions - Socialism: o Value: Equality o State ensures social wellbeing through  Equal distribution of wealth  Social welfare system  Difference from communism: • Communism is a form of socialism, but socialism rewards people based on contribution, whereas communism everyone is contributing equally - Social Values & Public Policies: o Legal Moralism:  The government role is to preserve a common morality  Conservatism o Legal Liberalism:  Government role is to manage public order and to preserve civil rights  Promoting civil rights o Legal Paternalism:  Socialism  State is responsible for the well-being of citizens  Government role is to protect citizens - Policy Analysis: o Positivist:  Focus on the objective, rationality  Purpose, impacts  Cost-benefit analysis  If we know the purpose, we can identify impact of policy o Complexity Theory 101:  Simple: • Cause leads direct line to effect  Complicated: • Training and expertise needed  Complex: • Not a linear process • Not predictable • Conflicting processes
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