Class Notes (839,590)
Canada (511,419)
Criminology (2,493)
CRM2310 (78)
Lecture

Unit 1: Why Community Intervention?

9 Pages
52 Views

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM2310
Professor
Kate Fletcher

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 9 pages of the document.
Description
CRM 2310 Lecture Notes – Unit 1: Why Community Intervention? Wednesday January 8 2014 Class #1 Why Community Intervention? Intervention • Conscious, planned, concerted action ---> to alleviate, eliminate social problems Informal/formal • Informal: Enacted by regular citizens, volunteers, community groups (such as • neighbourhood watch) Formal: CJS itself intervenes • Reactive/proactive • Reactive: dealing with a situation after it has occurred - governments tend to be more • reactive Proactive: trying to prevent something from happening in the future • Crime as Social Problem • Intrinsically linked to other social problems Universally relevant • No one wants to be victimized • Socially, economically costly • Potentially devastating - can overwhelm us • • Affects social fabric • Of communities - if many people are being incarcerated • Crime allows us to feel in control because we can take control of it and deal with it Causes of Criminality • Parental criminality • Opportunity Stigma • Poverty • Inequality • • Racism • Deteriorated communities • Child abuse Lack of schooling • Unemployment • Mental illness • Types of Community Geographical • Physical areas - look at the boundaries on a map • • Community is a container • Assumption that everyone who lives in that space shares something in common - such as shared interests, race, culture, socioeconomic status • Interest • Common/shared characteristics • Often elective communities - you choose to belong to them Intentional - belong to them to advance a common goal • Eg. Church, gangs, the internet, sports, Facebook, clubs, etc • Attachment • Based loosely on geography and loosely out of interest - such as being Canadian • We think of ourselves as Canadian and fundamentally different than Americans • Not only geography but ideology as well • Most interventions are still fixated on the geographic aspects • Theorizing Community in Social Life "Community lost" • Being lost in contemporary society • "Community saved" • Saved by people - still exists but in different forms • "Community liberated" ---> community as being transformed • • Needs to be liberated from the constraints of geography or territory - the nature of togetherness is changing "Community Lost" • Wellman (1979) • Urbanization/industrialization ---> decline in personal associations • Created the climate for us to be wary of one another • Forms the basis of modern sociology and criminology • The problem with big cities: • Increasing anonymity amongst citizens (if you don't know your neighbours, you don't know what they're doing) • People don't know one another, so they can't help one another - may become increasingly unwilling to intervene Types of Community • Tonnies (1887) • Moving away from the sense of community that existed in small, rural environments • Provides immediate, direct contact among individuals • Defines relationships in a specific way • Used to have a certain level of self-sufficiency in these small towns - people would rely on others to help with only the things that you couldn't do yourself • In big cities, we rely on others to do everything, and it is done in a very anonymous way • As we move into bigger cities, communities decline • Gemeinschaft • Discuss communities and how they regulate the relations of individuals • Gesellschaft • Sense of community declines as people move into bigger cities Chicago School • All different neighbourhoods in a city have a symbiosis with each other - mutual benefit, the components are dependent on one another • Cities are like bodies, ecosystems • A theory of place - not a theory about people • They commit crime because of the place in which they're located Social Disorganization of Communities • Residential instability • People want to leave the transitional zone ASAP • Do not want/do not have time to get to know each other • Racial/ethnic heterogeneity • Something that could lead to a lot of conflict - a barrier to get to know neighbours (don't speak the same language, have the same values, cultures, etc • Poverty • In this place, people are poor - one of the reasons why these neighbourhoods are disorganized • Parents working to support their families, so kids are left alone with no guidance • Anonymity "Community Lost" • Social ties are deteriorating because we are losing community • Impersonal • Utilitarian, instrumental • Transitory • Encounter a lot of people all the time for brief moments - not getting to know anyone • Segmented • Fractions of time, not the same person all the time • Becoming increasingly anonymous Community as Networks • Social networks ---> relationships ---> ties (strong - family members, close friends, close neighbours - or weak - not necessarily intimate/close relationships, school friends, a professor you can ask for a letter of recommendation) Weak ties can allow you to gain something but are not strong relationships • Builds sense of self • • Navigate demands of everyday life - feel more secure • We need both strong ties and weak ties • Weak ties give us a sense of security "Community Saved" • Neighbourhood systems of support and sociability persist • Local identification • Focus on ethnographic work or research of neighbourhoods "Community Liberated" • Increase in suburbanization/technological change ---> non-spatial communities • Eg. Detroit - no one lives near the downtown core Industrial cities • Public vs. private spheres • Not engaging with people in the public sphere in ways that we used to • Public space is increasingly private space - it is owned by someone who can dictate the • rules Rethinking Community • Bauman (2001) Togetherness must be conceptualized in a new way - how we experience togetherness in • social spaces • Mobile • Moving alongside one another Stationary • • Waiting alongside one another Temporal • Functioning alongside one another at work/in a classroom • Manifest • Experiencing something at the same time - in a crowd • Postulated • Theorized togetherness - in a virtual environment (the internet) • Monday January 13 2014 Class #2 "Community" Transformed • Less reliance on neighbourhoods • Psychological support • We don't necessarily need to know our neighbours - we form social bonds differently now • Cultural enrichment • Spiritual nourishment • Site to realize common values in support of social goods - eg. Public safety, socialize youth, trust, engage people so they belong to volunteer associations (do something on behalf of one another) • Neighbourhoods are still a beneficial environment • Less geographically based • Suburbanization - moving out of the city • If we want to solve something like crime, community must be fairly healthy • Not focusing on individual explanations of crime • Look to solve the problem of crime by engaging communities or fixing communities Importance of Community (Sampson and Putnam) • "Neighbourhood effects" - some of the reasons why communities are important and why it has such an impact in the lives of individuals • Important determining factors on the quality of our lives • Neighbourhoods have effects on these types of elements and impacts how we live • Local service quality • The institutions that contribute to an individual’s quality of life - eg. Schools, recreational facilities, churches, community health services, daycare, retail establishments (grocery stores, liquor stores), post offices, etc • The ability to access goods and services that contribute to your quality of life and are located in your geographic area • Will also affect job opportunities - may have to travel outside your neighbourhood • Shared norms/values • Make you feel secure - you can rely on neighbours, a feeling of connectedness • Doesn't always correlate to income levels - a neighbourhood doesn't necessarily have less social solidarity if it is populated with lower income people • May make people more likely to intervene • Peer influences • Have a big impact on youth being criminally involved - they model the perspectives of their peer group • Youth culture is characterized by risky behaviour that encourages delinquency • The atmosphere of the community is going to impact the nature of youth behaviours that will or will not be tolerated • Crime and violence • Impact
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit