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Lecture 19

CRM 1300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 19: Lockstep, Anger Management, Window Film

Course Code
CRM 1300
Carolyn Gordon

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Chapter 11: Prison
Incarceration - the system that breeds failure
USA – highest rate of incarceration
India,Japan, Sweden, Ireland (Scandinavian countries), - lower incarceration rate
What are some pains of imprisonment?
Deprived of goods and services
Loss of heterosexual relationships (men are housed with men, women w/women)
Deprivation of security
Deprivation of autonomy
Loss of liberty
Health issues?
Leading cause of death?
oSuicide happens at least 1 year into incarceration
Precursors to prison
Shift from the punishment of the body to the mind
Deprivation of liberty
Laws forbidding the imprisonment of anyone not convicted of crime
The age of enlightenment
Classical Theory
Why prisons were originally called “Penitentiaries”
Religious background, the inmates had to express remorse, be in solitude,
reading the Bible, the root word: penitent
John Howard – visited many of the prison in England and wrote a book of all the
abuse happening in the prisons, advocated for the use of prisons however said
they should not be treated like animals, also advocated for the use of solitary

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Elizabeth Fry – volunteered to work with females criminals and would provide
women with skills, her society is concerned with the well-being of women who
have gone through the criminal justice system
Pennsylvania Model - beginning of 19th century
Survived in the form of solitary confinement
Strong Quaker influence
Idea: criminal should spend majority of their time alone
No communication with anyone
Might get occasional visits from priest or chaplain
1 hour allowed for exercise by themselves in a yard
High rates of suicide
Mental abuse – insanity
Auburn Model – 19th century
Became the basis of Canadian prisons
“Congregate system”
Reformation through hard work
Silent association
Working, talking, and eating with other prisoners
No communication (verbal or nonverbal)
Direct talking forbidden but indirect talking resulted in severe punishments
Inmates wore masks
To discourage communication
Prevented recognition
Symbolically used to signify shame
The Lockstep Shuffle
A form of marching

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Moving in unison
Emerged with the auburn model
Teach them discipline
Possible safety concern
Dehumanization – erosion of self (you become a number)
Breakdown individual's former sense of self
20th Century Prison Ideals
1900 - "Policy of normalization"
Belief that these programs had to be administered in a controlled environment
rather than in an oppressive environment
Officers had to be trained
Move away from exploiting the inmates
1935 – Rehabilitative
medical model – belief that we could possibly treat offenders and they are
possible curable
1953 – Corrections
total process by which society attempts to correct the anti-social attitudes and
behaviours of the individuals
1960s – Re-integrative ideology
beginning of the use of community based sanctions, protect inmates from any
abuse from correctional officers, advocated for the rights of offenders ex: Justice
Model[due process]
1990s – Re-integrative ideology merged with psychological-based risk prediction
idea that all offenders are unique and have different risks and different needs,
therefore all must need different programs to be integrated back into society)
policy of normalization = inmates were provided with education and etc. done to
better reflect the conditions of society
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