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Lecture

Class 6b - The Emergence of Marxism.docx


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 1301
Professor
Carolyn Gordon

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The Emergence of Marxism:
True or False:
The U.S. crime rate has declined since the 1990s, and the prison population has
dramatically decreased as well (False it has been increasing)
Poor people commit the majority of crime in society (False)
Someone who embezzles money, or doesn’t declare all of their taxes often
receives a much more severe sentence than someone who steals $300 worth of
merchandise (False)
Canadians are 18 times more likely to be murdered than to die from a work-
related illness or injury (False it is the opposite)
What is the name of Marx’s most influential work? Communist Manifesto
What year was it published? 1848
Who co-wrote? Fredrick Engels
Law and the Consensus Perspective
The law is the codification of dominant social values and its application functions
to benefit the majority of people
Law and the Conflict Perspective
The law in both its codification and its application is not neutral but reflects the
interests of and benefits the powerful segments of society
Level of Analysis
Critical Theory
o Questions existing social arrangements
o Knows it is not equal some groups have more wealth and opportunities
Macro Approach
o Focus on the large scale structures of society
He is a conflict theorist and a critical theorist and takes the Macro approach (looking at
the big picture)
Karl Marx (1818-1883): Personal Context
Jewish heritage but converted to Christianity
Marginal social location
Not concerned with the “dangerous classes”
University education
Rejected religion from an early age because he saw the hardships that came with
it, and his father converted them
Wanted to become a university professor but did not have the opportunity because
the friend who was supposed to help him become a professor was fired from his
own job as a professor due to his writings of criticisms on the state etc.
He was apart of the dangerous class so was not concerned with it because he saw
that it was not the class itself committing the crimes.
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Published work for newspapers and magazines to make money and or borrow
money from Fredrick Engels
Saw the world as a place that needed to be questioned
Social and Intellectual Context
Industrial revolution: High unemployment because of war and the industrial
revolution transferring from people to machines and robotics
Mechanization, unemployment, reserve army of labour, poverty
Fear of the “dangerous classes”: Many “Have Not’s” few “Haves” in society
Young Hegalians (University of Berlin, worked with Marx)
Science and Statistics: Science and statistics start to be applied to social
phenomenon
3 Groups in Society:
CLASS:
Bourgeoisie: the capitalists, the owners of the means of production (wealth)
Proletariat: the working class, individuals who have to sell their labour power
Lumpenproletariat: Lowest group, unemployed and unproductive and
committing crime in society
What is Capitalism?
Economic system of wage-labour and commodity production for sale, exchange
and profit
Always in competition with one another for making the maximized amount of
profit
The Mode of Production
The manner in which the production of goods and services is organized
Divided into:
o Material forces of production: What sort of equipment do they have? What
sort of skill and knowledge is needed to use this equipment?
o Social relations of production: How I the work socially organized (the
owners control the non owners the workers)
The history of all existing society is the history of class struggle.
Will always see class struggle, always be an upper and lower and one that is subordinate
4 TYPES OF ALIENATION
ALIENATED FROM:
The process
The products
Fellow workers
Himself
Species being: having individuals achieve their full potential
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