Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UOttawa (30,000)
CRM (2,000)
CRM 1301 (300)
Lecture

Class 7a - The Emergence of Positivism.docx


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 1301
Professor
Carolyn Gordon

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
The Emergence of Positivism
Auguste Comte (1798-1857)
Three stages of society‟s evolution:
Theological
o The age of the monarchy, religion, ideas explained by God
Metaphysical
o The age of reason and law, things begin to be explained with reason.
Classical Criminology
Positive
o Move away from asking how and begin to ask why. What are the
underlying causes?
What is Positive Criminology?
Method
Deductive framework
Systematic observation
Accumulation of observable evidence
Objective
o Heavy reliance on observation and the scientific method. The positive
school developed in the second half of the nineteenth century, rooted in
the natural sciences, advances in bio, chem. etc. Referring to a method of
analysis that is based on the collection of observable scientific facts
(scientific method). People moved away from classical criminology.
Paradigm
A framework that shares a set of assumptions
Within paradigm have different theories
3 strains
o Biological positivism (genes, born this way), psychological positivism
(subconscious, insanity) and sociological positivism (class inequality,
upbringing within family)
What are the Basic Characteristics of Positivism?
Reliance on the scientific method
o Demand for facts and scientific truth
Focus on actors
Determinism
o Factors beyond the persons controlled, determined for them.
Hard: the belief that the individual had no choice in a situation
completely at the work of the external forces
Soft: confronted with decision (stealing because they need to feed
children and are poor)
Differentiation
Punishment should fit the individual
Offenders can be „cured‟
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version