CRM 2306 Lecture 3: Lecture 3

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Lecture 3
New Rehabilitation:
Transform individual risk  to look like whom?
Social problems treated as problems of the individual
New rehabilitation is new because we go on their risk now. So we transform people on the
basis of their riskiness. We’re not treating everyone the same anymore we are treating them
based on the risk they pose on society. People become objects.
Foucault suggests that the prison at a certain point in time becomes an apparatus (an
instrument). This implies that it has a function. This function according to him ends up being
retraining the offender of that law. It becomes part of the process of normalizing the
individuals. The prison becomes part of a machine in society that reproduces this emphasis on
rendering people docile, compliant, and retrained. He says the prison is not alone in this,
schools, military and other total institutions. According to Foucault the prison marks a line
between.
2 main symbolic functions of prison according to Foucault:
-Illustrate consequences of resistance of authority of expectations
-Conceal the fact that the social is the carceral (social control and discipline)
People that aren’t doing time believe they are free when in reality they aren’t according to
Foucault just because people who stray from norms go to prison which gives us the allusion
that we are free. It conceals the fact that society is controlling of us. We have choices but there
are boundaries, ex gender you can do certain things associated with your gender but if you
deviate into something the other gender does that isn’t acceptable for yours, you will have
consequences.
Instead of looking at disadvantaged communities as disadvantaged, we look at them as
criminal. Society disadvantages certain kinds of people constantly.
Offender of law + object of science  docile, retrained, repentant citizens.
CSC is the ones that evaluate the risk of people in prison.
The prison population:
We have an aging population, as of 2014 1 in 5 are over 50. Not very educated, a lot have
addiction issues, 80% of sentenced women have history of sexual abuse, many have hepatitis B.
Many have required mental health care. Most inmates will serve one month or less. There
aren’t that many people who serve 2 years or more, the most common is one month or less and
6 months to a year but that changes when it is federal time. Most in federal will serve 2 to 3
years or indeterminate which means they need a hearing so they are held for as long as it is
necessary to insure that the prisoner is better. So they could stay there for as long as officials
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deem fit. 21% in federal are aboriginal when they only compromise 3% of the total population.
Asian are actually underrepresented. Black are overrepresented.
Special populations: because they are special and have more needs they require a different
approach while they are serving time, the types of programs and how their risk is mitigated.
-Female offenders
-Aboriginal offenders
Women prison:
-3% of female prison sentences for violent offences
-29% of federal sentences for drug offences
-15% FSW had previous federal sentences (shows people are coming back and we’re not
effective and they’re higher risk).
-80% have been sexually assaulted
-Almost 34% of FSW are aboriginal
FSW= federally sentenced women
Disadvantage prior to prison:
Many people before going to prison have been disadvantaged. They have had social injustices,
unequal opportunity, no jobs, etc. Many are poor, many have not been finished high school,
many can only hold down casual work or part time jobs which aren’t good enough to survive
on: no benefits, not stable etc.
Collateral costs of imprisonment:
-Disruption in family life: 2/3 are mothers of children under 5yrs of age and 70% of women are
single mothers at arrest, leaving many to go to foster care which it is really hard for women to
get their kids back after.
Correctional philosophies:
-Model of formal equality  accessibility, same programs and services as men
-Many women serving time rendered them invisible because they were a lot less then men.
They didn’t have access to the same things as men did. Just because they are a smaller group,
doesn’t mean they should be denied the same services and such as men. The problem with this
is that services that men have may not be helping women at all because they have very
different needs, reactions and motives.
Creating choices document:
-Model of substantive equality  more similarities with women on outside then men, different
requirements and life experiences.
-Pathways to crime gendered pathways
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Document Summary

Social problems treated as problems of the individual. New rehabilitation is new because we go on their risk now. So we transform people on the basis of their riskiness. We"re not treating everyone the same anymore we are treating them based on the risk they pose on society. Foucault suggests that the prison at a certain point in time becomes an apparatus (an instrument). This function according to him ends up being retraining the offender of that law. It becomes part of the process of normalizing the individuals. The prison becomes part of a machine in society that reproduces this emphasis on rendering people docile, compliant, and retrained. He says the prison is not alone in this, schools, military and other total institutions. According to foucault the prison marks a line between. 2 main symbolic functions of prison according to foucault: Illustrate consequences of resistance of authority of expectations.

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