CRM 2307 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Domestic Violence, Psychological Abuse, Learned Helplessness

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Published on 5 Oct 2012
School
University of Ottawa
Department
Criminology
Course
CRM 2307
CRM2307 Partner Assault
Historical Reflections:
- Religious belief: Eve was the downfall, Adam was the smarter of the two,
Jesus was male, therefore the clergy assumed that men were smarter and
must guide their wife to salvation. And if that meant physical abuse that was
okay, the men had to discipline their wife
- A lot of pressure on women to stay in the home
- Women would complain, and men would counter-complain that they were
entitled to do it for the following: bad house keeping, bad mothering, bad
cooking
- Before the 1940’s women received support from social securities about
spousal abuse
- During the 1940’s with all the social upheaval women were seen as neurotic,
rigid and as trouble. If a women complained to social services there was
counseling done with her because she was considered the problem not the
male
- During this time the police are largely useless, they do not have the resources
and do almost nothing to prevent violence against women
Types of Wife Assault
1) Physical
2) Sexual
3) Psychological / Emotional
a. Picking on physical appearance
b. Belittling the women
c. Undermine women
4) Economic
a. Taking control of their money
b. Destruction of peoples belongings
c. Taking things out on peoples pets
5) Intimidation
a. Trying to scare women and have full control
- Many women who face verbal abuse almost wish the man would hit them so
that they at least have a reason to leave
- Sleep deprivation is a form of wearing someone down
- Isolation
- Using children
- Male privilege
- Coercion and threats
- Emotional abuse
Effect of Living Abuse;
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- Women:
o Super sensitized to the environment
o Continual self monitoring
o Self trivialization
o Depression
o Suicide
o Felling helpless
o Lack of energy
o Insecurity
o Guilt
o Low to non- existent esteem
o Social withdrawal
o Physical pain
o Eating disorders
o Fear
- Children:
o Behaviour problems
o Normalizes and legitimates violence
o Lower social competencies
o Self blame
o Physical complaints
o Deep disturbance
o Eating disorders
o Strong gender role
Cycle of Violence:
1) Tension Building; he is moody. Irritable, critical, nitpicking, silent/sullen
Isolates her, withdraws affection, blaming, name calling
2) Abusive Incident: he does verbal attacks, increased psychological abuse,
humiliation, accuses partner of being crazy, threats to assault, forced
imprisonment, physical/ sexual assault, use of weapons
3) Honey Moon: he begs forgiveness, “I’m sorry”, promises to get counseling /
go to church, enlists family support, “ill never do it again”, declares love, cries
Competing and Complementary Explanations
Psychological:
Question: why doe she’s not leave?
Answer: battered Women’s Syndrome (Lenore Walker) Circle of violence + learned
helplessness
Sociological:
Question: Why does he abuse her?
Answer: Psycho/ social context
Then Ask: Why does she stay? Ideological, social, personal constraints
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Document Summary

Religious belief: eve was the downfall, adam was the smarter of the two, Jesus was male, therefore the clergy assumed that men were smarter and must guide their wife to salvation. And if that meant physical abuse that was okay, the men had to discipline their wife. A lot of pressure on women to stay in the home. Women would complain, and men would counter-complain that they were entitled to do it for the following: bad house keeping, bad mothering, bad cooking. Before the 1940"s women received support from social securities about spousal abuse. During the 1940"s with all the social upheaval women were seen as neurotic, rigid and as trouble. If a women complained to social services there was counseling done with her because she was considered the problem not the male. During this time the police are largely useless, they do not have the resources and do almost nothing to prevent violence against women.

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