CRM 3312 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Arapesh Languages
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•“Be A Man”: Be aggressive, it is not okay to be emotional, stand your ground, be hypersexual,
be the breadwinner and be able to provide by having a steady, reliable income, and holding
down a job, protect your family and friends, have power, control, and authority, do not be told
what to do.
•“Act Like A Lady”: Be modest, be subordinate and dependent on a man, be submissive, be
caring, gentle, kind, compassionate, be able to communicate in order to express your thoughts
and feelings, be nurturing.
Are These Differences Natural?
•It is only when children are socialized that they begin to identify with a particular gender.
•Margeret Mead did a study that looked at primitive tribes
These people were seen to be a gentle mountain dwelling group.
Both men and women had very similar behaviours and attitudes and there was
not a lot of distinction between the two.
Childbearing responsibilities were divided equally between men and women.
Both sexes possessed “feminine” traits such as being cooperative and sensitive.
There was a lot of hostility between the father and the son and the mother and
Both sexes possessed “masculine” traits like being aggressive, selfish, and
looking out for themselves.
They defined male and female roles differently.
The roles that they prescribes were opposite of ours.
•Men possessed “feminine” traits and women possessed “masculine”
•The men were the subordinate ones and they were submissive to the
•They were softer and would care for the children whilst the women
would go out fishing and manage the things that we would assume the
men would manage.
•What we deem to me masculine and feminine is socially constructed.
Sex and Gender: Are These Terms Synonymous?
•When we refer to the “sex” of something, it is the biological category that is assigned at birth
upon viewing the genitals of the child.
oIt would designate the person as being male or female.
•Gender refers more to masculinity and femininity.
oIt is something that we do, not something that we are.
oIt’s the cultural meaning attached to being male and female.
oFemales are expected to act in a feminine manner and males are expected to act in a
How Do We Learn Gender Roles?
•We are talking about those socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities that are learned.
•They are what society deems to be appropriate for men and women and how they should behave
depending on their sex.
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