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DVM 2110 Lecture Notes - Allopathic Medicine, Essential Health Benefits, Hitech

International Development and Globalization
Course Code
DVM 2110
Sonia Gulati

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February 3, 2014
Global Ranking of Health Systems
Nothing on HRBA to Education, 50 Multiple choice, combination of memorization and
application questions
Because the wealthy population chooses to invest only into the private sector of
health care, the public sector is neglected (ie. Middle class having to pay more or
newer costs for things like doctor’s notes)
oUS spends a big portion of GDP on healthcare but public health care still not
up to par in quality.
Some tax based programs (such as Medicare) but only targets certain
groups, like the destitute, elderly, military families
ObamaCare: offers new benefits and programs such as;
oInsurance companies required to cover more
oInsurance companies cannot limit lifetime care
oIllegal to charge higher premiums for sickness
oShort summary of benefits rather than long documents (currently very
complex to navigate US health system)
oThree health plans that cover a core set of essential health benefits for those
that are not health insured (marketplace coverage),
Health System Differences Globally
Physician-to-population ratio;
oLIC; 2.8 physicians per 10,000
oLMIC; 10.1 physicians per 10,000
oUMIC; 22.4 physicians per 10,000
oHIC; 28.6 physicians per 10,000
oConsider brain drain,
Top three countries physicians flee to are the US, Canada, and the UK
Complementary and alternative medicine;
oGenerally speaking, in developing countries, there are traditional treatments
(such as homeopathy, yoga, acupuncture, etc.), while western countries are
dominated by allopathic medicine.

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oHowever, some countries, like India, will teach med students traditional and
allopathic medical treatments.
oWomen more likely to use healthcare system in developed countries and more
likely to be on prescription medicine.
Health Systems and Globalization
People who are healthier are more likely to be more productive, retire early, not call in
sick to work, etc.
In developing countries, health can be increased with basic interventions, such as
providing bed-nets.
In developed countries, more complicated due to burden of disease, long-term
management, and thus bigger interventions are needed.
Globalization; profit making becomes more of a priority.
oHealth system has a market; selling of pharmaceuticals, marketing hi-tech
machines such as MRIs, rights to technology/patents (some countries want to
maintain intellectual property rights)
Financing Health System
Health systems financed through the public first, as well as through organizations,
donors (some controversial donors, such as tobacco industry)
Analysis of cost-effectiveness; getting the most by spending the least
oInvest in individuals in the lower socio-economic bracket
oLook at current activity and outcome effectiveness
oWhat can you to do modify/eliminate services?
oAdding more healthcare workers or throwing money is not good enough;
How is the money being used?
Consider developing countries building beautiful, fancy hospitals
with no way of maintaining it.
If Sweden enjoys better health than Uganda, life expectancy is almost
twice as long, that’s because Sweden spends way more per capita.
However, Pakistan spends almost precisely the same per person
as Uganda but has better life expectancy.
The goal of universal health coverage is to ensure that all people obtain the health
services they need without suffering financial hardship for them;
oReduce/eliminate user fees for the vulnerable by subsidizing—this requires a
strong, efficient, well-run health care system that can detect conditions early and
has ability to treat and rehabilitate.
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