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Lecture

Lecture 1 - May 02 - 2014.docx

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Department
Economics
Course
ECO3139
Professor
Jin Woong Kim
Semester
Summer

Description
Sociology3306ClassoneFridayMay22014Womenmakeup15percentoftheCanadianmilitary14inUSAand33inIsraelMustcomparethetreatmentofwomeninthemilitarytoothersimilarentryleveljobsexOilrigsThemediaperceptionsandexternalopinionsofwomeninthearmyaremuchlessacceptingthantheinternalopinionsfocusongenderoverskillsandcredibilityBiologyGenderandHumanEvolutionpg16TowhatdegreedoesbiologyformsocialattributesamonggendersQuestionsaroundhowhormonesinfluencebraindevelopmentCordeliaFinearguesagainsttheideathatmenandwomensbrainsarehardwireddifferentlyshearguesthatpeoplestudyinginthesefieldsarealreadyinfluencedbyideasaboutmaleandfemaledifferencesbeforetheyevenbegintheirworkEvolutionarytheoriesfallintofourcategoriesmalestrengthmaleaggressionmalebondingandwomenschildbearingMaleStrengtharguesmenarephysicallysuperiorthesedifferencesbetweenthesexesarereferredtoassexualdimorphismoLeibowitzusingprimatestochallengethetendencytolinksexualdimorphismtoparticularsexrolepatternssheurgedustoredefinewhatwemeanbystrengthstereotypesofearlyhumanlifewasdrawnfrombaboonsratherthanthegreatapesMaleAggressionarguesthatmenaremoreaggressivethanwomenasaresultofdifferencesinhormonesFaustosterlingcautionsthatculturalconstructionsofgenderhaveinfluencedresearchthatlinkshormonestoparticularbehavioursoithasalsobeenarguedthatmaleaggressivetendenciesareanadaptationtomalerolesindefenseoideathatmenandwomenareaggressiveindifferentwaysMaleBondingattemptstoexplainmaledominationintermsoftheirsupposedlygreaterabilitytoformsocialbondsamongthemselvespresumedtobegeneticallyprogrammedandassociatedwiththeevolutionaryadaptationtohuntingwomenlackthisprogrammingandthereforelacktheabilitytopartakeinthesamecooperativeandpoliticalendeavorsasmenoManyhaveexploredthedevelopmentofthesexualdivisionoflabouramongearlyhumansandhavecritiquedthebiasthatisinherentintheemphasisonhuntingamaleactivityasthedistinctivehumanactivityoMargaretEhrenbergarguedthatwomenwereoftenthecenterofsocialgatheringandthatthehuntingprobablyevolvedfromthephysicaltechnologicalandsocialinnovationsassociatedwithgatheringafemaleactivityThesekindsofstereotypesaboutmalestrengthbondingandaggressionimpacttheroleofwomenincombatintheUSmilitarywomenlackthephysicalstrengthwouldinterruptmalebondingetcThefactthatwomenbearchildrenlinksthemtoanaturalcapacitytonurturethatmendonthaveTherearenofactsabouthumansexualbiologythatinandofthemselveshaveimmediatesocialmeaningorinstitutionalconsequencesmotheringisasocialrelationmuchlikegatheringjudgingorrulingwhosemeaningsandorganizationsmustbeunderstoodwithreferencetoaparticularconfigurationofrelationshipwithinacomplexsocialwholeAllthisevidenceshouldsupporttheargumentthatbiologymerelysetsparametersforabroadrangeofhumanbehavioursBiologicaldifferencesbetweenmenandwomenhavenouniformanduniversalimplicationforsocialrolesandrelationsBiologyforhumanstakesonmeaningasitisinterpretedinhumancultureandsocietyGenderandWarAreWomenToughEnoughforMilitaryCombatpg2837ArgumentthepoliciesrestrictingwomenfromengagingincombatarebasedonstereotypesandassumptionsaboutmaleandfemalenaturesTheidentificationofthemilitaryasmasculinemakesthemalesthestandardbywhichwomenareassessedWarhasalwaysbeenaplacewheremencouldprovetheirmasculinityTheperceptionthatthevirtuesofmanlinessarenecessaryforeffectivecombatsoldieringandthatwomenareincapableofillsuitedtothedevelopmentofthesevirtueshascontributedtothemaintenanceofwomensexclusionfrommostcombatassignmentsThesecondmythusedtokeepwomenfromcombatisthatmenfighttoprotectwomenMostcommonargumentsagainstwomenincombat1Lackofphysicalstrength2Capacityforchildbearingmakestheminappropriatecombatants3WomensparticipationincombatwouldreducethecohesionbydisruptingmalebondingPhysicalandPsychologicalStrengthIdeathatmilitaryeffectivenesswouldbecompromisedbywomenslackofstrength
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