– continuing from last week
– 'Shocks' and contradictions conveyed through a conflictual editing and traditional narrative.
– Film viewing is complex – one type of editing/shocks etc doesn't have the same affect on
– rejection of traditional narrative. Dziga Vertov. (sidenote: in battleship, the director was a fan of
– Montage: specific to cinema
– three identical shots – used those in combination with three other shots (food, corpse, naked
woman). He asked people what they saw, and they saw different expressions each time.
– The filmmaker saw that what was producing reaction wasn't the shot itself, but what the shot
was paired with
– relies on the relationship between two different shots, not the shot itself.
– Here, montage creates the actor's expression, as well as an imaginary time, space, and action.
– It relies on the basic principle of montage, which is very specific to the film medium.
– By combining different shots, a filmmaker can construct a time and space that did not exist
– Spectators rely more on the place and the relation between shots than on the shots themselves.
– For Koulechov (two different spellings, one French and one English), rhythm was the real
content of films (rhythmic sequence of shots).
– It decides and determines what spectators are going to think and how they are going to react.
– Here, montage creates the actor's expression as well as an imaginary time, space, and action.
– Cinematic realism is not photographic realism. Films do not reproduce but create.
– The Kulechov experiment was inspired by Pavlov and his dogs.
– Discovery of the acquisition (and loss) of conditioned response.
– Stimuli of a certain nature are supposed to provoke a response of a certain nature.
– Nota bene : the Kuleshov effect relies on a parallel editing.
– Intellectual montage.
– Battheship Potemkin: Revolutionary propaganda film in which Eisenstein experiments with
his montage theory and its effects on spectators (Kulechov effect).
– By using intellectual montage, Eisenstein tries to provoke strong emotional response so that
spectators can experience empathy for the sailors.
– Non-respect of some findamental rules of mise-en-scene.
– (Partial) rejection of Hollywood continuity editing.
– Ashot in conflict with another creates a new meaning that is independent from each individual
– Films must represent reality and take position at the same time (ideological positioning).
Filmmakers were not supposed to be neutral – defend and protect the communist ideology. – Film = structured ideological discourse.
– Intellectual montage aims to provoke extreme reactions by emphasizing conflicts, contrasts,
– Films = reflection originating from a concrete experience and the analysis of reality.
– Attraction what can be used to influence spectators and convince them of the validity of the
– Attractions = political aim.
– Must not be limited to entertainment or at the service of the narrative.
– (listen to the recording for this time, 30m in or so)
– Fabrication of facts 'Artistic journali