CIN 2190: Lecture #2 Jan 18th 2013
A Trip to the Moon
1902 George Mélies
Everything was happening in the same background.
At this time, the concept of editing was not present. Every single sequence was a very long set. They must
use a theatre set the whole time.
The film was quite innovative for this time.
The invention of cinema
Film making relies on two fundamental technical aspects which ideas existed prior the existence of cinema
“Prehistory” of cinema:
camera obscura: 2500 years dark room
the principles of the camera obscura were known as early as 400 BCE
camera obscura= optical device that projects an image on a screen/surface
led to the invention of photography.
It is a box or a room with a hole in one side
Light from an external scene goes through the pinhole and strikes the surface of the opposite wall/surface
When passing through the hole, the external scene is reproduced upside. The idea of cinema, was always there, but the technology was not available.
Different purposes: artists to draw, almost like a tracing board
Scotland castle, authentic camera obscura to view the downtown city at the top of the castle.
In order to have a larger image produced it is possible to use a lens. The lens will control the quality of the
Shadow play/shadow puppetry
Projection of the flat articulated figures on a screen
creates the impression of moving characters/humans object
Indonesia, china, Cambodia, India, Greece, Nepal Turkey, France
Silhouettes of the puppets are what appear
Laterna magica Latin
Appeared in Persia around the 11th Century
Ancestor of slide projectors
3 elements: light source, glass slide and a concave lens
Séraphin: magic lantern shows that appeared towards the mid 1800s
EtienneGaspard “Robertson” Robert’s Phantasmagoria: a modified magic latern projected frightening
images to which Robertson added special effects (smoke, smells, shaking of the lantern)
A screen tradition existed prior to the official invention of cinema in 1895 5 important stages ip to the invention of cinema:
1. the camera obscura becomes more sophisticated as various individuals for example add lenses to it or
succeeded in very briefly fixating images with silver salt.
Leonardo da Vinci develops a better camera obscura which is then used by many painters.
2. Joseph Neéphore Niepce: invented photography in France. Modifies the camera obscura too. First
photographs= 8 hr exposure between 18221824precise date unknown.)
3. The magic lantern which allows the projection of images on a screen.
4. the artificial synthesis of movement was made possible thanks to Joseph Plateau (Belgium) who
invented the phénakistiscope in 1832 round disk with slots would be reflected on a mirror.
This requires the persistence of vision ▯
An afterimage persists for roughly 0.20 second on the retina.
Allows us to observe a succession of fixed images without seeing the gap between images in question
In a normal film= 24 images/ 1 sec
The slot between the images, the blank frame, if the film is made well, you will not see this
5. Breaking down of motion
Eadweard Muybridge (USA) studies animal movements through photography
Captures motion in stopaction photographs.
Are all four feet of a horse off t