GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Layered Intrusion, Plate Tectonics, Potash

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14 Aug 2016
Department
Course
Economic Geology and Mineral Resources
Selling minerals
In high demand now
Mining
Each person uses 20000kg/yr of crushed rock, cement, gravel…
Lots of mining and extraction is for stuff like roads and cement
Ex: stone, gravel, sand, gold, copper, potash, lime, nickel
Mineral resources and human history
Evidence of mining more than 160,000 years ago
Metals first used over 20,000 years ago
oCopper and gold were the earliest used
(Important elements used for various things – see table)
Where are metals found?
They are not evenly dispersed
Most useful metals in crust are scarce
Present at concentration of 0.1 wt%
Most occur as atomic substitutions in more abundant rock-forming
minerals
Al : found in Bauxite (Al is residual product of weathering of bauxite)
Fe : banded sedimentary formations; magmatic segregation
Common ore minerals
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