GEO 1111 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Shear Thinning, Newtonian Fluid, Sea Level Rise

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14 Aug 2016
Department
Course
sGlaciers
The Cryosphere
All frozen water on Earth
Sea ice, river ice, permafrost and snow
Ice represents 2% of all ocean volume
80% of Earth’s freshwater is ice
Water is the only substance on earth that occurs naturally in all 3 phases
Glaciers are most important part of the cryosphere
Ice sheets (11% of Earth’s surface) :
oAntarctic
oGreenland
oAlpine
Permafrost : permanently below 0C (not necessarily ground ice), 15% of
Earth’s ground surface
Sea Ice
Sea ice is seasonal, does not contribute to sea level rise
Freezing of seawater is near -2C
The salt is rejected when the ice forms
Dense, cold water plunges to depths and forms bottom water, this helps
keep the oceans’ circulation
Sea ice is generally around 3 m
Glaciers
Naturally accumulated ice mass that deforms under its own weight
Reflect lots of energy and light back to space
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