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Class 6. Stroke & Vascular Dementia.docx

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University of Ottawa
Vanessa Taler

Stroke & Vascular Dementia What Causes Stroke - Thrombotic stroke - Cerebral Hemorrhage - Embolic Stroke  Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs): mini-strokes. Risk Factors for Stroke  Congestive heart disease  Hypertension  Atherosclerosis  Previous TIAs  Diabetes  Smoking  High cholesterol  Family history of strokes Most Common Effects of Stroke  Weakness or paralysis in legs and/or arms  Shoulder pain  Trouble swallowing (dysphagia)  Sensory/perceptual problems  Cognitive problems, including difficulties with language (aphasia)  Incontinence  Depression and difficulties with emotional control  Fatigue Right Hemisphere Strokes  Left hemiparesis (weakness) or hemiplegia (paralysis).  Spatial perception difficulties  Unilateral neglect, where person ignores things in their left visual field  Difficulties with short-term memory  Judgment and behavior may be inappropriate  Anosognosia (inability to acknowledge physical reality of stroke)  Apraxia (difficulty planning and executing complex motor sequences) Left Hemisphere Stroke  Right hemiparesis or hemiplegia  Aphasia (language difficulties) Non-fluent (Broca’s aphasia) Fluent (Wernicke’s aphasia) Global aphasia  Deficits in short term memory  Difficulty in learning new information  Anosognosia (more common in RH than LH strokes)  Apraxia Broca’s Aphasia  Impaired language production, especially syntax (grammar)  (More or less) intact language comprehension  Aware of the deficit and often suffer from depression Wernicke’s Aphasia  Intact language production, although output often does not make sense and they use neologisms (made-up words)  Language comprehension is impaired  Often unaware of their deficit Brain Stem Strokes  Decreased v
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