HIS 1110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Political Movement, Russian Empire, Monroe Doctrine

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22 Jul 2016
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7/22/16
Asia between the wars: Japanese expansionism
1914-1941 Japan expands tremendously and is the dominant power in Asia
WWI is great opportunity for Japan (unlike it is to Europe) - can expand influence in Asia,
at Germanys expense
Germany has some small bits of Asian land which Japan wants through their alliance
with Britain (J declares war on G in 1914 and proceeds to capture G territory) - Get parts of
China and strategic islands etc.
Keep expanding after WWI, sights on China;
China is still politically unstable (1911-12 huge chaos and upheaval) and a basket case
(controlled by competing warlords)
Japan sees Cs chaos and decides to capitalize on it - Other countries previously inter-
ested in China (i.e. B, F, R) are busy in European war!
The 21 demands (1915)
-Japan sends China demands: extortion (humiliating ultimatum that would have given
J complete control of China like a colony) - C should surrender sovereignty to J
-Tries to control natural resources and gov.
-China in no position to refuse, but Britain and US tell Japan to calm down (concerned
over Japan’s increasing power in C)
-21 demands down to 13 demands; Japan has dominant role in C
-US economic interest in C foreign trade threatened (value of “Open Door Policy”) -
US wants to preserve openness of Chinese trade
-During WWI America and Japan start competing in Pacific - tension begins
-US launches naval construction project (arms-race) and J does the same in response
- warships built, people worried;
-1917: US joins WWI and tensions with J temporary halt (would be too much to be all
at once)
Lansing-Ishii Accords (1917)
-Guarantee Chinas territory - Japan cant annex any part of China
-Chinese markets will stay open with Open Door policy
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7/22/16
-Japan gets special interestin China - J interpreters this differently (feel like they
have a Monroe Doctrinetoo) [MD gives US right to intervene in LA; Japan wants
right to intervene in Asia its only fair!]
Russian empire crumbles - Japan is main power in Asia and has no big competi-
tion, they should have power over China;
-This is very temporary - functional misunderstanding as to what each party wants
-Major arms-race launched again (Japan invests 1/3$, but still much smaller fleet
than US and B) - Japan at least most powerful in Asia
-US takes steps to counter J aggression
-1919-1920 US threats: fleet starts shifting from Atlantic to Pacific, through Pana-
ma Canal
Fleet centred more around Pearl Harbour
-After WWI everyone has reason not to want another war/conflict (fear and wor-
ries) = negotiations given a chance
Washington Naval Treaty (1922)
-Main players all have reasons to back away from arms-race and want to give
diplomacy a chance
Britain exhausted after fighting war, running out of money, etc;
Worlds economy in general is slumping
US falls back into isolation a bit due to political thought to stop getting so involved
Arms-race threatens to bankrupt Japan since they have so much to catch up
-Naval Treaty one of few times in 20th C where arms are disabled or limited -
fleets voluntary limited
-Italy & France join the main three in conference
-Capital ship fleet size limited (warships with over 10,000 tons of weapons not al-
lowed)
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