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Wednesday September 4, 2013
1. Introduction Course Overview: What we will be covering in this course
|A. Definition of Republic
What is the Republic?
1. Republic 509-27 BC
a. Latin- Res Publica, which is not a term meant to describe government
b. The Republic is not a democracy in modern sense
c. Res Publica means common public property, or public affairs, as opposed to private
d. Modern scholars use the word Republic to mean the form of government that developed
in 5th c. BC, in which the commonwealth/empire was managed jointly by members of the
aristocracy who worked within a structure of laws and institutions that limited arbitrary
use of power.
e. Constitutional problems of Res Publica:
oLaws and senate versus people and popular reform
oAuctoritas patrum= indelible authority of senate
oAuctoritas patrum was religiously sanctioned because state religion was
oSenate controlled priesthoods: (religious) calendar and divination
oPopular assemblies/sovereignty versus authority of senate
oConservative popular reform versus creative foreign policy
oFailure to resolve issue of people versus senate/aristocracy led to collapse
•State authority was based on religion authority, state religion was state
oAuspicium= divination: augury; augurs
oReligions and state calendar: pontifex=pontiff
oWhat is auspicious? What the gods want the Romans to do
oWhen is it legal (auspicious) to declare war?
Purification rituals to appease gods in hard times
•Social Patterns, norms
oRomans practiced patronage (patrons, clients)
Romulus invented Patronage so the Plebeians could be clients; it
goes back to the 6th century based on references.
oRomans Practiced slavery (manumission)
350 BC, age of conquest, Romans practiced slavery ( practical
reality, allies were given a reward for supporting them, but former
adversaries would be enslaved)
slaves were employed in households, they were forced to work on
once you were free-born you’re next generation would be free as
oRoman society was divided into political factions
•Conservative Senate men, magistrates and believed in the
oRoman Society was Class based (The amount of property you had
determined your class and voting power)
•The old Blue Bloods, they self invented themselves
•The class of romans known as the senators, basically they
were the senatorial families
•Senator is a man of status and position and a member of the
•The Prominent class, the most elite of the Plebeians
Senator means one born into the senatorial class, and a member of
oAll males citizens were member of popular assemblies
Popular assemblies were passive and controlled by the senate and
Stake holders- rules were the oligarchy
They were also made up of magistrates and senators
oRoman Republic was not a democracy
Always auctoritas partum
oRomans had imperialistic foreign policies
Commonwealth at first, where Rome sits ahead of their allies
oRomans invented system of alliances (allies, enfranchise)
oEventually became the Empire with provinces (annexed them)
Provincial: Province, sovereignty
oEmpire spatial meaning
Rome had annexed territories as provinces, no more alliances ,
they made them their subjects, with governors ruling on behalf of
oEmpire chronological meaning Imperial when Rome began to be ruled by
•Climate and Geography
oTyrrhenian Sea: has a geographical and cultural meaning. The Western
basin of the Mediterranean Sea
oAdriatic Sea: the Eastern Basin of the Mediterranean Sea
oMagna Graecia: Great Greece, Romans called it Southern Peninsula
•Stenochoria: an important distinction between ancient Greece and in Rome.
Different topography and timeline between the areas. Refers to a condition of
little to no agricultural farmland. Stenochoria was a continuous condition in
Ancient Greece but not in Italy.
The City of Rome
•Rome as a city: has the geographic advantage of a river; hills which make it more
oRome had transport access, and an important north/south trade route.
oThe Tiber is a boundary between two different areas of Italy.
•These geographic features allowed it to expand into Italy and Mediterranean
•Rome's relationship with Italy was very important. It was pivotal in the
development of her empire.
•The Roman Empire would span great distances, time zones, climates, and native
languages, ethnicities, and races, in a part of the world that today is almost
impossible to unite politically.
•The continuing process of the Alps, on the border of Gaul
Ancient Time Keeping:
•BC (Before Christ)=BCE (Before the Common Era);
•AD (Anno Domini); CE (Common Era)
oexample of usage AD79… 3rd century AD
•In late 6th c. AD BC and AD was formulated by chronographers and chroniclers
in order to have a universal system.
•Before this: ancients used eponymous chronology (year named after most
•It was too regional.
Chronology: TIME LINE TIME LINE OF REPUBLIC:
•2,000,000: glacial period Pleistocene
•600,000: Stone Age (=later part of Pleistocene) Archaeology: cave sites, nomadic
4000: NEOLITHIC: Emergence of agriculture and permanent settlement:
•2000: Copper technology (tools and ornaments): CHALCOLITHIC
•Lake Dwellers; Bell Beaker Folk
•1800–1200: BRONZE AGE
•1400–1100: Mycenaean contacts with Italy and Sicily