HIS 2129 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Carl Linnaeus, Interchangeable Parts, Jacques De Vaucanson

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Chapter 3: Launching a Revolution
Technology became a major social factor during the Industrial Revolution
Harnessing steam energy and increasing use of wind and water power
Altered the world’s power balance
Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization broke up human history by sources of
energy
Civilizations depended on muscle, wind, and water for power; Industrial
Revolution adopted steam as a new source of power
From Landscape to Cityscape
Industrial Revolution started in England.
Break in economic growth rates leading to the overall enrichment of the
population
Population increased and the English economy increased through industrial
activity
The Industrial Revolution in England was preceded by the agricultural revolution
Ongoing process
Use of new tools, development of new animal breeds, move to enclosed fields,
more interest for a more rational and scientific pursuit of farming, new types of
crops.
Scientific pursuit of farming
o Looking at production numbers, food rates to determine better farming
methods
1500-1850: New crop rotations doubled productions, manuring
Increased food production increased the English population, quality and quantity
increased but also, some crops were also fed to animals
Dutch: 3-4 people per hectare, South China: 7 people per hectare
Other examples are in Netherlands, China and England: high agricultural
productivity drove higher levels of urbanization
High agricultural productivity drove higher levels of urbanization
But this not lead to an industrial revolution in China or Netherlands
China: active in commerce and manufacturing
Netherlands: developed the beginnings of a capitalist economy around
shipbuilding, fisheries, and overseas trade.
New population in England was a low-cost labour force and a market for nearby
industries
Causes and Factors
England did not become a predominantly industrial nation until the 1820s.
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