HIS 2342 Lecture Notes - Weimar Constitution, Spanish Civil War, Socialist Unity Party Of Germany

138 views17 pages
2 Jan 2013

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Long 19th century: 1789-1914
- Population growth and population stagnation in Europe
- Population growth in central and eastern Europe, fewer in northern and western Europe
- Urbanised northern and western Europe, while more rural eastern and central, movement of
peoples both going outside of Europe and also within Europe ,due to various reasons
- Some historians view turn of century as an economic depression: but not all European countries
reacted in this way
- Economic contrast between industrialized west and north, and agricultural east becomes much
- Steel and chemical production, plus engineering breakthroughs, western and northern European
countries were able to procure ships, arms and trains
- Working class, doesn’t see a distinction between skilled and unskilled labour, mechanization
- All workers became homogenized due to mechanization, standardized consumer products
flooding the market
- Some prospered, others suffered… mechanization brought forth new job opportunities
- Landholding elites no longer the richest members of society, rather individuals make fortunes
through financial services become prevalent
- Some countries had their traditional nobility invest in these new financial services, perhaps
entering these sectors by marrying into these financier families
Nation state
- Mid-19th century throughout 20th century, nations have been struggling to form states
- Job of a state at end of 19th century, to convince all living peoples in its territories, regardless of
origin, religious, ethnicity, or language that they belong to the state
- Different states come up with different models on national belonging, try to emphasize national
- Cosmopolitanism, changing class structures, political forms being challenges to the nation state
- Socialist project being a challenge to the nationalist identity, by definition, argues that there is
an international working class whose identity is its working class, supersedes any superficial
- The catholic church also proposes an international identity
- Minority groups within a nation
- Feminists movement, poses its own ideological questions towards the national project
- Socialists argue that the state is the instrument of the bourgeoisie, the state is a tool for the
higher class to enforce economic domination
- Socialist project argue that separate political parties must be formed in order to take over the
state, some socialists believe that alliances must be made with other liberal, leftist parties to
achieve goals, others disagree
- State support for the catholic church will be a way of keeping socialism at bay, maintaining
majority consensus
Question of minorities and minority nationalities
- By end of 19th century, minorities within European states began to make demands in defense of
their own culture, religious, language rights etc.
- These demands puts states in a difficult position, resistance would surely result a rebellion from
the minority, if the state gives in to these demands, the state is undermining its own national
- Challengers to national project, Irish independence, Jewish independence, feminists, socialists
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Imperial territories were important ways for empires to increase their prestige and power
- Sources of economic advantages
- Mass public education programs was a way for nation states to enforce a national identity upon
the masses
- Mass education was designed to teach the social position of the masses, encourage the lower
classes to not challenge the status quo of society
- Middle classes seek out education for their children in a way never seen before, education seen
as a tool out of the middle class
- Movies revolutionized mass culture at the turn of the 20th century
19th century intellectual trends
- Understanding the workings of society, and understanding why society is so dysfunctional
- Degeneracy: the evaluation of an individual’s personality characteristics due to their physical
characteristics, others claim that social environment played a role
- The debate about the nature of individual freedom
- Opponents: Emphasis of religious faith, homogenous identity, rejection of intellectual sentiment,
religious sentiment, militarism
Why was a diplomatic solution not possible in WWI?
1905: the first Moroccan crisis: German Kaiser travels to Morocco to display Germany’s displeasure
about Morocco’s transfer to French control
1908: Austro-Hungarian Empire annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina
1914: Franz Ferdinand dead: Austro-Hungarian authorities attempt to crush Serbian nationalism once
and for all: accuses Serb gov’t of organizing the assassination, list of unreasonable demands, eventually
war occurs, Germany supports Austria-Hungary, Russian Empire mobilizes
- The Schlieffen plan!!!
- WWI was a zero sum game for unlimited ends
- WWI occurred because European countries wanted to settle rivalries once and for all
WWI continued
- Central powers began to string together victories, western allies endure some defeats, French
soldiers mutiny, allies in some trouble
- Significant allied casualties, Russian defeat
- 1918: German failure to defeat France before American deployment spells the end of the
German Empire
- Wilson’s 14 points
- Russia was not present at the negotiations at Versailles
- League of nations initially made up of allied and neutral countries, 1 vote 1 nation, a council of
big four nations and japan, 4 rotating member states
Tsar Nicholas II and his Family: the Russian revolution
- Obviously Russia got pwned in WW
- The serf system made Russian food production incredibly bad
- Transportation, food production, etc. all directed to war effort, even though the Russian military
suffered significant defeats
- The left obviously didn’t like how this is going, demands for more power to the duma
- Duma created in response to the revolution in 1905, Nicholas II had to create it
- Although its legislative powers were crappy
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
- Nicholas tries to dismiss the Duma in response to demands that the cabinet reports to the duma
instead of the tsar
- Nicholas II then goes off personally to command the armies, leaves his wife in charge
- Rasputin is the advisor to the tsarina: the dude screwed things up, got murdered in 1916
- Germany encouraged independence movements across the Russian empire, to take advantage
of this situation… in Ukraine, Poland, Finland
- General strikes, revolution out of despair etc.
- The Bolsheviks: represents the victorious majority party to emerge from the left wing party
- Leader was Vladimir Lenin, advocated limiting Bolshevik party membership to a small core of
professional revolutionaries, creating a system of centralized control of the party
- Meaning leaving sympathisers outside of the party membership
- The Mensheviks, unlike Bolsheviks, they believed party membership should be open to anyone
who supports the party program
- Mensheviks represents the minority faction
- Leftist of the duma form a provisional government, Tsar Nicholas II abdicated infavor of his
- The socialists begin to form their own government, creates soviets
- Creates their own military discipline stuff, producing its own newspapers etc.
- Soviets do not oppose the government initially, in fact they agree to try to work together in an
assembly to establish a future permanent government and constitution
- Obviously this falls apart as the two governments become even more polarized
- Provisional government’s idea for land distribution would be to create commissions that would
produce reports that would lead to debates about economic policy to create parliamentary
- Soviets obviously would just distribute the land to the people
- The return of Bolshevik leaders really made things happen
- Lenin differed from orthodox Marxists in regards to the steps to get to true communism
- Lenin was less patient, felt you can skip some steps, and move directly to a socialist state
- Argues that there needs to be a dictatorship of the Bolshevik party over the working class
- Party dictatorship itself would be run by a small elite of Bolshevik party leadership
- Bolsheviks go out to explain bolshevism to peasants, explaining the April thesis in the hopes of
gaining their support when the revolution moves forward
- Leon Trotsky, setup a military revolutionary committee in order to prepare for an eventual
revolution, to defend the city of St. Petersburg in event of attack
- Nov 7 1917, October revolution finally breaks out
- Military groups organized by Bolsheviks took over key government departments, provisional
government arrested
- Meeting of the soviets took place the very next day
- Lenin becomes president, Trotsky becomes foreign commissar, commissar of nationalities is
- Initial meeting of committee, Lenin abolishes the legal rights of land ownership, the church, and
the crown
- The lands were given to local authorities to be redistributed
- Lenin signed for peace with Germany
- Bolsheviks are not successful all over Russia immediately, some new soviets created, the
Mensheviks actually won some elections
- Revolutions had to be fought differently in some areas
- Treaty of Brest Livosk signed with Germany
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 17 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class